These old cells were reprogrammed in vitro to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and to rejuvenated and human embryonic stem cells (hESC): cells of all types can again be differentiated after this genuine "rejuvenation" therapy. The results represent significant progress for research into iPSC cells and a further step forwards for regenerative medicine.
The results are published in the Genes & Development Journal dated 1 November 2011.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are undifferentiated multiple-function cells. They can divide and form all types of differentiated adult cells in the body (neurones, cardiac cells, skin cells, liver cells, etc...)
Since 2007, a handful of research teams across the world have been capable of reprogramming human adult cells into induced pluripotent cells (iPSC), which have similar characteristics and potential to human embryonic stem cells (hESC). This kind of reprogramming makes it possible to reform all human cell types without the ethical restrictions related to using embryonic stem cells.
Until now, research results demonstrated that senescence (the final stage of cellular aging) was an obstacle blocking the use of this technique for therapeutic applications in elderly patients.
Today, Inserm researcher Jean-Marc Lemaitre and his team have overcome this obstacle. The researchers have successfully rejuvenated cells from elderly donors, some over 100 years old, thus demonstrating the reversibility of the cellular aging process.
To achieve this, they used an adapted strategy that consisted of reprogramming cells using a specific "cocktail" of six genetic factors, while erasing signs of aging. The researchers proved that the iPSC cells thus obtained then had the capacity to reform all types of human cells. They have the physiological characteristics of "young" cells, both from the perspective of their proliferative capacity and their cellular metabolisms.
A cocktail of six genetic factors...
Researchers first multiplied skin cells (fibroblasts) from a 74 year-old donor to obtain the senescence characterized by the end of cellular proliferation. They then completed the in vitro reprogramming of the cells. In this study, Jean-Marc Lemaitre and his team firstly confirmed that this was not possible using the batch of four genetic factors (OCT4, SOX2, C MYC and KLF4) traditionally used. They then added two additional factors (NANOG and LIN28) that made it possible to overcome this barrier.
Using this new "cocktail" of six factors, the senescent cells, programmed into functional iPSC cells, re-acquired the characteristics of embryonic pluripotent stem cells. In particular, they recovered their capacity for self-renewal and their former differentiation potential, and do not preserve any traces of previous aging.
To check the "rejuvenated" characteristics of these cells, the researchers tested the reverse process. The rejuvenated iPSC cells were again differentiated to adult cells and compared to the original old cells, as well as to those obtained using human embryonic pluripotetent stem cells (hESC).
"Signs of aging were erased and the iPSCs obtained can produce functional cells, of any type, with an increased proliferation capacity and longevity," explains Jean-Marc Lemaitre who directs the Inserm AVENIR team.
…tested on cells taken from donors over the age of 100.
The results obtained led the research team to test the cocktail on even older cells taken from donors of 92, 94 and 96, and even up to 101 years old. "Our strategy worked on cells taken from donors in their 100s. The age of cells is definitely not a reprogramming barrier." He concluded. "This research paves the way for the therapeutic use of iPS, insofar as an ideal source of adult cells is provided, which are tolerated by the immune system and can repair organs or tissues in elderly patients." adds the researcher.
Inserm Transfert filed a patent request for this research.
Jean-Marc Lemaitre took advantage of the Avenir programme in 2006. This programme was created in 2001 by Inserm and provides a platform for young researchers, who have obtained their PhD in science, to set up and coordinate a team within an existing research structure. In 2009, Inserm and CNRS merged their respective programmes aimed at young researchers, and from that date on they have launched a joint call for proposals: Atip-Avenir.
Genes & Development, 1er Novembre 2011 Vol. 25, No. 21, doi:10.1101/gad.173922.111
Juliette Hardy | EurekAlert!
Bolstering fat cells offers potential new leukemia treatment
17.10.2017 | McMaster University
Ocean atmosphere rife with microbes
17.10.2017 | King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST)
University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
17.10.2017 | Life Sciences
17.10.2017 | Life Sciences
17.10.2017 | Earth Sciences