Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Epilepsy at the Molecular Level

10.02.2016

Researchers study the link between malformations of the cerebral cortex and the occurrence of the neurological disease

Why does a structural irregularity in the temporal lobe make humans more susceptible to epileptic seizures?


The detail of the cerebral cortext shows the myelin fibers that form an electrically insulating layer around the nerve cells (green/violet). Source: Cerebral Cortex/Oxford University Press

Experts have been searching for the answer to this question for a long time. A group of scientists at the Freiburg University Medical Center consisting of members of the University of Freiburg’s Cluster of Excellence Brain Links–Brain Tools has published a study involving a comparison of nearly 30,000 genes in the journal Cerebral Cortex.

The team describes pathological processes in the brain tissue in developmental disorders of the cerebral cortex. The study is the largest of its kind to date. The authors of the study see the research as an excellent example of cooperation between fundamental researchers and clinicians.

Pathological changes in the cerebral cortex referred to as “focal cortical dysplasias” are present in approximately 25 percent of epilepsies limited to particular brain areas. Patients with these dysplasias are often resistant to antiepileptic drugs. The most effective treatment is currently to remove the affected areas in an operation, after which the epileptic seizures generally stop happening.

Up to now, however, researchers could only speculate about how the abnormal structure of the cerebral cortex is linked at the molecular level to the occurrence of epilepsy. To investigate this connection, Freiburg neurobiologist Prof. Dr. Carola Haas and her team compared gene expression in malformed brain tissue with that in epileptic, non-malformed tissue.

To do so, they used so-called microarrays, a chip technology originally developed for the semiconductor industry. In this way, Haas and her colleagues succeeded in demonstrating that the factors less frequently expressed in diseased tissue are primarily those responsible for the formation of myelin. Myelin is an electrically insulating layer surrounding nerve cells. Additional analyses showed that the structure of this layer appears to be broken open and in disarray.

This could be an indication that the conduction of the stimuli is considerably impaired in the affected brain region. “The disposition for epilepsy in patients with the malformation investigated in our study could potentially be explained by a resulting electrical over-excitability of this nerve fiber sheath,” says Haas. The group at the Department of Neurosurgery now aims to conduct further experiments to investigate what precisely happens in the malformed tissue during the development of myelin.

Original publication:
C. Donkels, D. Pfeifer, P. Janz, S. Huber, J. Nakagawa, M. Prinz, A. Schulze-Bonhage, A. Weyerbrock, J. Zentner, C. Haas (2016): Whole Transciptome Screening Reveals Myelination Deficits in Dysplastic Human Temporal Neocortex. In: Cerebral Cortex., pp. 1–15.

Contact:
Prof. Dr. Carola Haas
Section for the Foundations of Epileptic Diseases
Department of Neurosurgery of the Medical Center – University of Freiburg
Phone: +49 (0)761/270-52950
E-Mail: carola.haas@uniklinik-freiburg.de

Levin Sottru
Science Communicator
Cluster of Excellence BrainLinks–BrainTools
University of Freiburg
Phone: +49 (0)761/203-67721
E-Mail: sottru@blbt.uni-freiburg.de

Weitere Informationen:

https://www.pr.uni-freiburg.de/pm/2016/pm.2016-02-09.18-en?set_language=en

Rudolf-Werner Dreier | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Topologische Quantenchemie
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

nachricht Topological Quantum Chemistry
21.07.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA looks to solar eclipse to help understand Earth's energy system

21.07.2017 | Earth Sciences

Stanford researchers develop a new type of soft, growing robot

21.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Vortex photons from electrons in circular motion

21.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>