Earth's biodiversity—the number of microorganisms, plants, and animals, their genes, and their ecosystems (such as rainforests and grasslands)—is declining at an alarming rate, even faster than the last mass extinction 65 million years ago. In fact, two thirds of the terrestrial species that exist today are estimated to be extinct by the end of this century. Humans are an integral part of this extensive network of life. We depend on biodiversity for goods and services; we impact biodiversity via rapidly expanding human population growth, consumption of resources, and spread of disease; and we study biodiversity in order to understand, conserve, and protect it.
To celebrate, analyze, and suggest future avenues of biodiversity research, three world-renowned scientists—Dr. Peter Raven, President Emeritus of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Dr. Jonathan Chase, from Washington University in St. Louis, MO, and Dr. J. Chris Pires, from the University of Missouri Columbia—have co-edited a Special Issue on Biodiversity, published in March by the American Journal of Botany (http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/reprint/ajb.1100055v1). Raven, Chase, and Pires overlap in their interest in biodiversity, yet their specialties complemented each other when it came to inviting "some of the best and brightest biodiversity scientists from each of [their] fields" to provide contributing papers to this issue.
Peter Raven is a long-time champion of biodiversity, drawing attention to the importance of conserving rare and endangered plant species all over the world. Jon Chase is interested in what drives patterns of species diversity in aquatic and terrestrial systems, and uses experiments as well as models and computer simulations to analyze ecological questions pertaining to biodiversity. Chris Pires's research focuses on plant evolutionary biology, from phylogenetic studies in plant diversity to genome-wide analyses of gene expression, from the molecular and gene level to the evolution and ecology of polyploidy in plants. The interests and talents of these three researchers led them to ask questions such as, "What is the Earth's current status regarding biodiversity?" and "What are our future prospects?" This unique collaboration resulted in 20 papers submitted by an international suite of biodiversity experts.
As Raven et al. are quick to point out in the Introduction to the Special Issue, a wide range of topics is presented, spanning from 150 million years ago to present (and future) day. For example, modern-day ecosystems are put into perspective by Alan Graham of the Missouri Botanical Garden, who demonstrates that today's ecosystems are a product of past events and, as such, their history can tell us something about present environmental conditions and where we might be heading. Several articles describe how many of the plant groups that we know of today arose, and their authors use modern molecular, genetic, and phylogenetic approaches to gain insights into evolutionary and developmental trends and suggest advancements in methodologies and data acquisition for future research. Other papers address the previous lack of knowledge on groups such as microorganisms and fungi and use modern molecular techniques to demonstrate the discovery of their incredible levels of biodiversity. The challenge of species identification using modern DNA techniques is also addressed—Pamela Steele and J. Chris Pires, both from the University of Missouri, propose a combination of genomes as a tool for species identification.
Other articles in the special issue focus on ecological, evolutionary, conservation, and restoration issues. Do some of the key fundamental evolutionary and ecological theories proposed a few decades ago to explain ecological relationships among species, such as Island Biogeography or the Species Area Curve, hold up now that we have acquired more data with which to test them? These issues are examined at local and global spatial scales and fine-tune, as well as provide interesting twists, on these fundamental theories. For example, Jana and Steven Vamosi from the University of Calgary, examined patterns of angiosperm diversity around the world and concluded that one of the key mechanisms to angiosperm diversification is the amount of area available—area can limit the carrying capacity per se of a species' lineage. Several articles review the literature or use mathematical models or meta-analyses to examine patterns of diversity at the local (alpha-diversity) or regional (beta-diversity) scale, from plant-pollinator interactions to networks of networks, to describe how habitat transformation or loss can not only impact the number of species, but can break down ecosystem functions and services, and point out areas of research for the future that will provide us with a deeper understanding of biodiversity, especially within the context of global climate change, habitat loss, and biological invasions.
This Special Issue on Biodiversity has articles that should be of interest to a wide audience, from the budding conservationist to professionals on the cutting edge of their field. These articles provide up-to-date analyses of many aspects of biodiversity and should stimulate the direction of up-and-coming research in their various fields.
CITATION: Raven, Peter H., Jonathan M. Chase, and J. Chris Pires (2011). Introduction to special issue on biodiversity. American Journal of Botany 98(3): 333-335. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1100055
The full article in the link mentioned is available for no charge for 30 days following the date of this summary at http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/reprint/ajb.1100055v1. After this date, reporters may contact Richard Hund at firstname.lastname@example.org for a copy of the article.
The American Journal of Botany's Special Issue on Biodiversity was co-edited by Peter H. Raven, Jonathan M. Chase, and J. Chris Pires. Peter H. Raven is President Emeritus of the Missouri Botanical Garden and one of the world's leading botanists and advocates of conservation and biodiversity. Described by TIME magazine as a "Hero for the Planet," Dr. Raven champions research around the world to preserve endangered plants and is a leading advocate for conservation and a sustainable environment. Jonathan M. Chase is a professor in the Department of Biology and Director of the Tyson Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis, MO. His specific research interests currently center around understanding patterns of biodiversity. J. Chris Pires is assistant professor in the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri Columbia in Columbia, MO. He devotes his research to plant evolutionary biology and is part of MU's Interdisciplinary Plant Group.
The Botanical Society of America (www.botany.org) is a non-profit membership society with a mission to promote botany, the field of basic science dealing with the study and inquiry into the form, function, development, diversity, reproduction, evolution, and uses of plants and their interactions within the biosphere. It has published the American Journal of Botany (www.amjbot.org) for nearly 100 years. In 2009, the Special Libraries Association named the American Journal of Botany one of the Top 10 Most Influential Journals of the Century in the field of Biology and Medicine.
For further information, please contact the AJB staff at email@example.com.
Richard Hund | EurekAlert!
Don't Give the Slightest Chance to Toxic Elements in Medicinal Products
23.03.2018 | Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
North and South Cooperation to Combat Tuberculosis
22.03.2018 | Universität Zürich
Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.
The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
23.03.2018 | Event News
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
23.03.2018 | Life Sciences
23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
23.03.2018 | Process Engineering