Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Drought makes Borneo’s trees flower at the same time

22.05.2013
A drought period causes the trees in Borneo’s tropical forests to flower at the same time.

Evolutionary biologists from the University of Zurich have identified two genes that indicate when the plants are about to flower. By monitoring these genes specifically, scientists are better able to predict when mass flowering will occur. This means that plant seeds can be collected in a targeted manner and used for reforestation.


The study species, Shorea beccariana
Picture: UZH


Community-level mass flowering (general flowering) in the Lambir Hills National Park in Borneo 2009 (Malaysia).
Picture: UZH

Tropical plants flower at supra-annual irregular intervals. In addition, mass flowering is typical for the tropical forests in Borneo and elsewhere, where hundreds of different plant timber species from the Dipterocarpaceae family flower synchronously. This phenomenon is all the more puzzling because both temperature and day length are relatively constant all year round due to geographical proximity to the equator. Up to now it was supposed that several weeks of drought may trigger mass flowering in Borneo's forests. However, no empirical data and genetic analyses were available.

An international research team headed up by evolutionary biologists at the University of Zurich has now identified two genes responsible for the flowering of a tropical deciduous tree species Shorea beccariana. After drought periods, the two genes SbFT and SbSVP undergo dramatic transcriptional changes directly before flowering. The researchers can also confirm the flowering functions of these two genes using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

85-meter canopy crane necessary for sample collection
The PhD student Masaki Kobayashi, his supervisor Professor Kentaro Shimizu and their Malaysian, Taiwanese and Japanese colleagues collected multiple buds from a single Shorea beccariana tree shortly before the start of flowering. “Given the fact that Shorea is a giant tree, having its crown at 40 meters of height, this sample collection was not easy at all”, says Shimizu. Only with the help of an 85m high canopy crane were they able to collect samples at six different time points over a two-year period. Next, they analyzed the sample material using a next-generation sequencing procedure, which was initially developed for human genome and disease research. In this way, Kobayashi and Shimizu identified 98 genes that are associated with the flowering of the plant ­– including the genes SbFT and SbSVP, which showed transcriptional changes after a drought period and directly before flowering. The scientists then combined their genetic results with the meteorological data of the region. Kobayashi concludes that «Flowering in Shorea beccariana is triggered by a four-week drought in combination with elevated sucrose levels.»
Toward prediction of mass flowering
Climate change will affect the frequency of drought periods and is thus predicted to affect also the frequency of mass flowering. Environmental protection and restoration of the forests have so far been severely hindered by the irregularity of the mass flowering intervals, which are thus difficult to predict. It was never possible to know when the seeds needed could be collected. The genes that have been identified now indicate when mass flowering is about to happen. «Successively monitoring of gene activity can help predict when mass flowering will take place», explains Kobayashi. This will make it possible to coordinate the collection of seeds and improve biodiversity and conservation programs substantially. Kentaro Shimizu and his colleagues will continue to explore these interactions in the newly created University Research Priority Program «Global Change and Biodiversity» at the University of Zurich.

The research was supported by the University Research Priority Programs in Global Changes and Biodiversity, in Systems Biology / Functional Genomics, and SystemsX.ch.

Literature:
Masaki J. Kobayashi, Yayoi Takeuchi, Tanaka Kenta, Tomonori Kume, Bibian Diway, Kentaro K. Shimizu. Mass flowering of tropical tree Shorea beccariana was preceded by expression changes in flowering and drought responsive genes. Molecular Ecology. May 8, 2013. doi: 10.1111/mec.12344
Contact:
Prof. Kentaro K. Shimizu
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies
University of Zurich
Phone: +41 44 635 67 40 or 49 70
E-mail: kentaro.shimizu@ieu.uzh.ch

Nathalie Huber | Universität Zürich
Further information:
http://www.uzh.ch

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals
23.08.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht Treating arthritis with algae
23.08.2017 | Empa - Eidgenössische Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Treating arthritis with algae

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star

23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>