Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Discovery of DNA silencing mechanism reveals how plants protect their genome

12.05.2011
Researchers at the RIKEN Plant Science Center (PSC) have clarified a key epigenetic mechanism by which an enzyme in the model plant Arabidopsis protects cells from harmful DNA elements.

Published in the April 28th issue of the journal PLoS Genetics, the finding contributes to advancing our understanding of a broad range of biological processes in both plants and animals, opening the door to applications in cancer therapy and agriculture.

In everything from protein synthesis to gene expression to development, living cells depend critically for their survival on the successful functioning of their DNA. Certain DNA elements such as transposons, fragments of DNA that replicate within an organism's genome, can however disrupt this functioning and disable genes. To defend against such harmful elements, eukaryotic cells form inactive tightly-packed DNA called heterochromatin, whose dense structure serves to repress (“silence”) the expression of nearby gene sequences and protect the genome.

Earlier research identified the enzyme HDA6 as playing a key role in such “hetrochromatin silencing” in the model plant Arabidopsis, but the mechanism involved remained unclear. In order to clarify this mechanism, the research group investigated the involvement of HDA6 in two processes: DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that changes the structure of DNA without altering its sequence, and the modification of histone, the main component of chromatin.

Through a genome-wide comparison, the researchers were able to show that plants with repressed HDA6 function are not able to silence harmful DNA elements, suggesting that the enzyme plays an important role in gene silencing. Further investigation revealed that HDA6 binds directly to transposons and silences their activity through specific histone modifications, and that another enzyme, the DNA methyltransferase MET1, cooperates with HDA6 in this gene silencing.
Together, the findings establish for the first time that MET1-mediated DNA methylation and HDA6-mediated histone modification work together in repressing harmful DNA elements. By shedding light on the complex interplay between these two processes, the findings provide valuable insight on how plants and animals have evolved to protect their genome from harmful DNA, contributing to applications in areas such as cancer therapy and agriculture.

For more information, please contact:
Motoaki Seki
Plant Genomic Network Research Team
RIKEN Plant Science Center
Tel: +81-(0)45-503-9587 / Fax: +81-(0)45-503-9584
Ms. Tomoko Ikawa (PI officer)
Global Relations Office
RIKEN
Tel: +81-(0)48-462-1225 / Fax: +81-(0)48-463-3687
Email: koho@riken.jp

Reference:
To TK, Kim J-M, Matsui A, Kurihara Y, Morosawa T, et al. (2011) Arabidopsis HDA6 Regulates Locus-Directed Heterochromatin Silencing in Cooperation with MET1. PLoS Genet 7(4): e1002055. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002055

About the RIKEN Plant Science Center
With rapid industrialization and a world population set to top 9 billion within the next 30 years, the need to increase our food production capacity is more urgent today than it ever has been before. Avoiding a global crisis demands rapid advances in plant science research to boost crop yields and ensure a reliable supply of food, energy and plant-based materials.

The RIKEN Plant Science Center (PSC), located at the RIKEN Yokohama Research Institute in Yokohama City, Japan, is at the forefront of research efforts to uncover mechanisms underlying plant metabolism, morphology and development, and apply these findings to improving plant production. With laboratories ranging in subject area from metabolomics, to functional genomics, to plant regulation and productivity, to plant evolution and adaptation, the PSC's broad scope grants it a unique position in the network of modern plant science research. In cooperation with universities, research institutes and industry, the PSC is working to ensure a stable supply of food, materials, and energy to support a growing world population and its pressing health and environmental needs.

Tomoko Ikawa | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.riken.jp
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>