Case Western Reserve University School of Dental Medicine researchers discovered a biomarker, called human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), which may serve as an early warning. The defensin is present in all oral cancers and associated with the early stages of oral cancer.
“Using the biomarker to detect oral cancer holds potential for saving lives when the cancer is most curable. Annually some 10,000 people die from this cancer,” said Ge Jin, assistant professor of biological sciences at the dental school.
He led the study, “An Antimicrobial Peptide Regulates Tumor-Associated Macrophage Trafficking via the Chemokine Receptor CCR2, a Model for Tumorigenesis.” The Public Library of Science published the research in PLoS ONE.
Oral cancer first appears as white or red lesions in the mouth, the same as noncancerous lesions.
Often, the lesions are not biopsied, and cancer is not discovered until it becomes apparent in its later stages, when it has metastasized to other organs. Such a late-stage diagnosis is generally fatal and can result in costly surgeries and treatments or disfigurement that may include removing parts of the tongue, jaw and cheek. All this can be avoided with early removal of the lesion.
The hBD-3 biomarker is one of many innate immune peptides found in the epithelial lining of the mouth. In a normal, healthy oral cavity, hBD-1, -2 and -3 ward off the hundreds of bacteria that constantly challenge the human immune system in the mouth.
While hBD-1 and -2 are on the frontline defense, hBD-3 is only found in the basal layer where oral cancers grow. The researchers report that the hBD-2 disappears and only hBD3 is present when a cancerous tumor progresses.
Jin added that the lone presence of hBD-3 made the research team question its role on tumor growth and found it attracts other molecules that actually help the cancerous tumor grow and eventually spread to other parts of the body.
It appears hBD-3 plays a role in the development of the chemokine receptor called CCR2 that recruits tumor-associated macrophage cells to infiltrate the tumor site and stimulate tumor growth. The tumor-associated macrophages and other molecules release growth factors that encourage the progression of the tumor.
Eventually tumor cells break away, travel and spread the cancer to other places in the body.
“This is the first time that we have evidence that CCR2, too, has a role in oral cancer growth,” said Jin.
The researcher plans to continue studying the role of hBDs in oral health and to develop diagnostic tools that use the biomarker to detect early cancer.
Other project researchers are: Hameem I. Kawsar, Stanley A. Hirsch, Xun Jia, Santosh K. Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Aaron Weinberg from Case Western Reserve University; Qing Yin Zheng from University Hospitals Case Medical Center; Chun Zeng and Aimin Zhou from Cleveland State University; and Thomas M. McIntyre, Learner Research Institute at the Cleveland Clinic College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University.For more information contact Susan Griffith, 216.368.1004.
Case Western Reserve University is committed to the free exchange of ideas, reasoned debate and intellectual dialogue. Speakers and scholars with a diversity of opinions and perspectives are invited to the campus to provide the community with important points of view, some of which may be deemed controversial. The views and opinions of those invited to speak on the campus do not necessarily reflect the views of the university administration or any other segment of the university community.
Susan Griffith | EurekAlert!
Researchers invent tiny, light-powered wires to modulate brain's electrical signals
21.02.2018 | University of Chicago
The “Holy Grail” of peptide chemistry: Making peptide active agents available orally
21.02.2018 | Technische Universität München
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters
Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
21.02.2018 | Life Sciences
21.02.2018 | Life Sciences
21.02.2018 | Materials Sciences