Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cracking the plant-cell membrane code

23.03.2010
To engineer better, more productive crops and develop new drugs to combat disease, scientists look at how the sensor-laden membranes surrounding cells control nutrient and water uptake, secrete toxins, and interact with the environment and neighboring cells to affect growth and development.

Remarkably little is known about how proteins interact with these protective structures. With National Science Foundation funding, researchers at the Carnegie Institution's Department of Plant Biology are using the first high-throughput screen for any multicellular organism to pinpoint these interactions using the experimental plant Arabidopsis.

They have analyzed some 3.4 million potential protein/membrane interactions and have found 65,000 unique relationships. They made the preliminary data available today to the biological community by way of the Website www.associomics.org/search.php. Since proteins are similar in all organisms, the work is relevant to fields from farming to medicine.

"This is just the beginning," remarked Wolf Frommer director of Carnegie's Department of Plant Biology. "Arabidopsis shares many of its genes with other organisms including humans. As the library of interacting proteins grows, scientists around the world will be able to study the details of protein interactions to understand how they are affected by forces such as climate change and disease and how they can be harnessed to produce better crops and medicines more effectively."

All of a cell's internal machinery relies on the binding of proteins. Complementary shaped proteins dock with one another to start processes, such as turning on a gene or letting in the proper nutrient. These membrane proteins make up some 20-30% of the proteins in Arabidopsis, a relative of the mustard plant.

The team uses a screen called the mating-based protein complementation assay, or split ubiquitin system. Ubiquitin is a small protein. The scientists fuse candidate proteins onto a version of ubiquitin that is split in half. When the two candidates interact, the two halves of the ubiquitin reassemble, triggering a process that liberates a transcription factor—a protein that switches a gene on—which then goes to the nucleus. When genes are turned on in the nucleus, the researchers are alerted to the successful interaction. The ultimate goal is to test the 36 million potential interactions as well as the sensitivity of the interactions to small molecules with a high-throughput robotics system.

The group plans to start a second round of screening at the end of this month to test another 3.4 million interactions.

This work was made possible by grants from NSF 2010 : Towards a comprehensive Arabidopsis protein interactome map: Systems biology of the membrane proteins and signalosomes (grant MCB-0618402) in addition to support from Carnegie. Other participants on the 2010 project include UCSD, Penn State and the University of Maryland. The group previously donated 2010 clones to the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC is at Ohio State University), and more recently another 1010 for other scientists to use to help advance fields from medicine to farming.

The Carnegie Institution for Science (www.CarnegieScience.edu) has been a pioneering force in basic scientific research since 1902. It is a private, nonprofit organization with six research departments throughout the U.S. Carnegie scientists are leaders in plant biology, developmental biology, astronomy, materials science, global ecology, and Earth and planetary science.

Wolf Frommer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.CarnegieScience.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Fine organic particles in the atmosphere are more often solid glass beads than liquid oil droplets
21.04.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie

nachricht Study overturns seminal research about the developing nervous system
21.04.2017 | University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

Im Focus: Quantum-physical Model System

Computer-assisted methods aid Heidelberg physicists in reproducing experiment with ultracold atoms

Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...

Im Focus: Glacier bacteria’s contribution to carbon cycling

Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.

A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New quantum liquid crystals may play role in future of computers

21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A promising target for kidney fibrosis

21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine

Light rays from a supernova bent by the curvature of space-time around a galaxy

21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>