Conifers emit volatile hydrocarbons, primarily terpenes, which we experience as the characteristic smell of the woods.
In a complicated series of reactions involving ozone and sulfur dioxide, these compounds may be involved in the formation of aerosols that counteract the greenhouse effect. German scientists have now been able to follow the reaction of a terpene with ozone in the laboratory by using infrared (IR) spectroscopy.
As they report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, they were able to identify critical intermediates of this process, namely the Criegee intermediates. They were also able to verify that these intermediates react very efficiently with sulfur dioxide.
Terpenes have a strong influence on the chemical processes that occur in the earth’s atmosphere, even though they are only present in trace amounts. Particularly in summer, these compounds are involved in the ozone chemistry of the troposphere. It has been shown that their oxidation plays a large role in the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), which influence our climate.
These processes have not yet been completely explained and represent a large source of uncertainty in climate-prediction models. Researchers working with Thomas Zeuch at the University of Göttingen and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now gained new insights into the reactions of terpenes with ozone.
SOAs are liquid or solid particles that contain sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and are formed from gaseous precursors such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and terpenes. Atmospheric sulfuric acid and the sulfuric acid and sulfate aerosol particles that are formed from it also contribute to acid rain. “At the same time, they work against the greenhouse effect,” explains Zeuch, “because they both promote cloud formation and reflect the sun’s radiation back into space.”
How does sulfuric acid get into the troposphere? “In addition to a sequence of reactions that starts with the oxidation of sulfur dioxide by hydroxyl radicals, an alternative pathway of oxidation by Criegee intermediates (CIs) has been proposed,” says Zeuch. These compounds are carbonyl oxides with two free-radical centers that account for their unusual chemistry. They are formed by the reaction of ozone with the double bonds in organic compounds such as terpenes. Until now, only small CIs formed through photolysis have been directly detected. In their study, Zeuch and his co-workers have now examined the reactions of the terpene called β-pinene, which is often found in plants, with ozone.
“By using IR spectroscopy, we were able to detect large, stabilized CIs formed during the ozonolysis of pinene for the first time,” reports Zeuch. “These large CIs reacted with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur trioxide with a yield of over 80 %. Time-resolved experiments revealed that this reaction is very fast.” This unequivocally proves that SO2 is efficiently oxidized to tropospheric sulfuric acid by reaction with stabilized Criegee intermediates from terpenes.About the Author
Author: Thomas Zeuch, Universität Göttingen (Germany), http://www.uni-pc.gwdg.de/zeuch/
Title: Infrared Detection of Criegee Intermediates Formed during the Ozonolysis of β-Pinene and Their Reactivity towards Sulfur Dioxide
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Permalink to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201307327
Thomas Zeuch | Angewandte Chemie
Researchers reveal new details on aged brain, Alzheimer's and dementia
21.11.2017 | Allen Institute
Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development
21.11.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung ISC
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Materials Sciences
21.11.2017 | Health and Medicine