Now, researchers of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch and Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany, have identified 115 genes that are disregulated both in the primary tumor and in its metastases.
The National Cancer Institute estimates that, alone in the United States, 106,100 cases of colon cancer will occur and 49,920 patients will die both from colon and rectal cancer in 2009.
Beginning in glands in the bowel lining, colorectal cancer often remains undiscovered initially. "However, the main problem is not the primary tumor," explained the surgeon and clinical researcher Dr. Johannes Fritzmann, "but the dangerous metastases."
Metastases arise when single cells break off from the primary tumor and spread to other body regions via the blood vessels or the lymphatic system. In colorectal cancer, these cells usually settle in the liver, lungs, or lymph nodes. Since the affected patient seldom feels pain or shows other symptoms, the tumor is frequently not discovered until it has already formed metastases.
To investigate which genetic mutations favor the formation of metastases, the researchers analyzed 150 tissue samples of colorectal cancer patients with and without metastases. The researchers identified 115 genes that are falsely regulated in both the primary tumors and their metastases. In this way, the researchers succeeded in identifying a genetic signature which distinguishes tumors with metastatic potential from those that do not metastasize.
Of the 115 genes the researchers identified, they focused on one gene in particular: BAMBI. They discovered that this gene is more active in metastatic tumors and metastases than in non-metastatic tumors.
"Our investigations show that the particular gene BAMBI is associated with two import signaling pathways and thus promotes metastasis formation," Dr. Fritzmann said. "These signaling pathways (Wnt and TGF-beta) are, among other things, important in the developing embryo."
In the future the researchers want to investigate the role of the other 114 genes more closely, in order to better understand the individual steps of metastasis formation.Aim - To predict at an early stage whether the tumor will spread
*A Colorectal Cancer Expression Profile that Includes Transforming Growth Factor ß Inhibitor BAMBI Predicts Metastatic Potential
Johannes Fritzmann1,2,6, Markus Morkel1,4,6, Daniel Besser1,6, Jan Budczies3, Frauke Kosel1, Felix H. Brembeck1,5, Ulrike Stein1,2, Iduna Fichtner1, Peter M. Schlag1,2 and Walter Birchmeier11Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany
6 contributed equally.Barbara Bachtler
Barbara Bachtler | Max-Delbrück-Centrum
More genes are active in high-performance maize
19.01.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
How plants see light
19.01.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.
We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...
What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.
Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...
08.01.2018 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.01.2018 | Health and Medicine
19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy