Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

CO2 for Chemical Synthesis

10.05.2013
Carbon dioxide is the most common source of carbon in nature and an inexpensive building block that is useful for the chemical industry. However, because of its high stability, it is not easy to induce CO2 to react. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, German scientists have now reported a universally applicable method for the catalytic methylation of amines with CO2.

A variety of methods have previously been developed with the goal of attaching CO2 to various organic molecules to convert them into intermediate products for chemical syntheses. Indispensable to all of these techniques is a suitable catalyst that activates the CO2 for the reaction in question.

To date, no one has developed a general method for the catalytic methylation of amines by CO2. In this reaction, CO2 is bound to the nitrogen atom of the amino group and is converted (reduced) to a methyl group (–CH3). Amine methylation methods currently available generally depend on toxic substances.

Matthias Beller and his co-workers at the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis in Rostock have now described a catalyst that is able to generally convert carbon dioxide and diverse amines into products that are methylated at the nitrogen atom.

The secret of their success is a ruthenium complex that reacts with a special phosphoric ligand in situ to become an active catalyst. In addition, phenylsilane, an organosilicon compound, is used as a reducing agent.

For the actual reaction, the metal complex, ligand, and silane, are placed in an autoclave with toluene as solvent and the amine to be methylated. CO2 is introduced at a pressure of 30 bar and the mixture is stirred at 100 °C for several hours.

This new catalytic process makes it possible to selectively methylate almost all types of amines—secondary and primary, aromatic and aliphatic—in high yields. The amines are converted to the desired tertiary amines and diamines. Even urea can be used as a starting material. In contrast to many other known methylation methods, the presence of other functional groups, such as nitrile, olefin, ether, ester, or hydroxy groups pose no problem. They are not affected so protecting groups are not needed.

“We have demonstrated for the first time that the general methylation of organic substrates using silanes and CO2 as a simple carbon source is possible,“ says Beller. “The catalyst consists of a commercially available ruthenium complex and ligand formerly developed by our group.”

About the Author
Professor Matthias Beller is Director of the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis in Rostock. His research interests are in the area of homogeneous catalysis and organic synthesis.

Author: Matthias Beller, Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V., Rostock (Germany), http://www.catalysis.de/Beller-Matthias.239.0.html

Title: A General Catalytic Methylation of Amines Using Carbon Dioxide
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Permalink to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201301349

Matthias Beller | Angewandte Chemie
Further information:
http://pressroom.angewandte.org
http://www.catalysis.de/Beller-Matthias.239.0.html

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Not of Divided Mind
19.01.2017 | Hertie-Institut für klinische Hirnforschung (HIH)

nachricht CRISPR meets single-cell sequencing in new screening method
19.01.2017 | CeMM Forschungszentrum für Molekulare Medizin der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New Study Will Help Find the Best Locations for Thermal Power Stations in Iceland

19.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Not of Divided Mind

19.01.2017 | Life Sciences

Molecule flash mob

19.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>