Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

These Cells Are Fishy, But That’s A Good Thing

09.09.2010
Scientists from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified dendritic antigen-presenting cells in zebrafish, opening the possibility that the tiny fish could become a new model for studying the complexities of the human immune system.

The study, reported in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, was headed by David Traver, an associate professor in UCSD’s Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, with colleagues in UCSD’s Division of Biological Sciences and at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute.

Dendritic cells (DCs) form a crucial link between the innate and adaptive immune systems in mammals. Innate immunity is present in all organisms, providing immediate but short-lived and relatively non-specific defense against infection. Adaptive immunity is evolutionarily younger and more complex. It produces long-lasting protection against specific pathogens after initial exposure. Mammalian DCs act as sentries that bridge the innate and adaptive systems, confronting and engulfing newly discovered pathogens, then recruiting and activating antigen-specific T lymphocytes.

While DCs and the adaptive response have been well-documented in mammals, it was not clear whether these cells existed in non-mammalian vertebrates. Scientists knew that zebrafish – an increasingly popular animal model – exhibited many of the cellular elements of the adaptive system, including T and B lymphocytes, but no one had documented the presence of dendritic cells.

Traver and colleagues inventoried hematopoietic cells that could engulf labeled bacteria, looking for cells that appeared and behaved like mammalian DCs. They found multiple suspects, but finally zeroed in on one rare cell type that appears to fit all of the criteria for being a dendritic cell.

“All signs point to these cells being the fish version of dendritic cells,” said Traver. “They have all of the major characteristics.”

The discovery of DCs in zebrafish provides researchers with another model for investigating the mammalian immune system, particular with regard to humans. “The cool thing is that the more we learn, the more we realize that our immune systems are highly conserved,” said Traver. “Of course, there are differences. These differences, however, are variations on a theme, with the major themes of immune cell function being quite similar. Likewise, there are differences and variations in the dendritic cells of mice compared to humans, but the basics are the same.”

Zebrafish do offer some practical research advantages over other models.

First, the fish are translucent. “You can track individual cells and systems directly in the whole animal,” said Traver. “Very little is known about the initial immune response in mammals because we can’t see it happening. In these fish, we can visualize what happens in real time.”

Second, zebrafish are easy to handle and reproduce rapidly, making it easier to engineer and study mutations. “We can quickly grow generations of fish, letting the genetics tell us what’s important,” Traver said.

Co-authors with Traver are Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Keir M. Balla and David L. Stachura of the Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, UC San Diego and Miriam B.F. Werneck of the Division of Cellular Biology, Brazilian National Cancer Institute.

Scott LaFee | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

nachricht CWRU researchers find a chemical solution to shrink digital data storage
22.06.2017 | Case Western Reserve University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

Im Focus: Optoelectronic Inline Measurement – Accurate to the Nanometer

Germany counts high-precision manufacturing processes among its advantages as a location. It’s not just the aerospace and automotive industries that require almost waste-free, high-precision manufacturing to provide an efficient way of testing the shape and orientation tolerances of products. Since current inline measurement technology not yet provides the required accuracy, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT is collaborating with four renowned industry partners in the INSPIRE project to develop inline sensors with a new accuracy class. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the project is scheduled to run until the end of 2019.

New Manufacturing Technologies for New Products

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation

22.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

A rhodium-based catalyst for making organosilicon using less precious metal

22.06.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>