One such protective mechanism consists of transport proteins in the cell membrane that act as molecular 'pumps', preventing toxic compounds from accumulating in the cell. This defence mechanism against toxic chemicals is called multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR). Substances that inhibit the MXR mechanism are called chemosensitizers.
The two recently discovered proteins are both ABC transporters. This class of membrane proteins takes its name from a shared structural element: the ATP-binding cassette (ABC). ABC transporters are one of the largest known families of proteins that occur in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals.
Similar proteins are involved in the blood-brain barrier in humans, where they prevent harmful substances from entering the sensitive nerve tissue. In mussels and other aquatic organisms this barrier does not divide different parts of the same organism, but forms a barrier towards the outside - an 'environment-tissue barrier'.
"The proteins are in the cell membrane and ensure that substances that do not belong in the cell are transported out again - like a bilge pump that pumps water out of a ship," explains Dr Till Luckenbach of the UFZ.
Possible effects of environmental chemicals on the MXR system were first described nearly 20 years ago. But it is only in recent years that scientists have begun investigating such effects in more detail. "We want to understand the system to find out how chemicals interact with these transporters," says Luckenbach, who began researching mussels at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station in California and is continuing his research using fish and mammalian cells in Leipzig at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research."So far, comparatively little is known about environment-related substances that trigger this chemical sensitization by blocking the MXR system.
However, the known substances belong to very different chemical groups. This could be an indication that interactions between environmental substances and the system are widespread."
Until now, the chemicals authorisation procedure has been looking at associated risks, such as toxicity and mutagenic or carcinogenic effects. The sensitization effect of certain substances with regard to other chemicals - referred to as the chemosensitization effect by scientists – does not play a role in the current legislation. However, Till Luckenbach and his colleagues are convinced that these substances have a major impact on the environment and that it is important to find out more about these processes.Publications:
http://www.seagrant.noaa.gov/At the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. They study water resources, biological diversity, the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities, environmental and biotechnologies, bio energy, the behaviour of chemicals in the environment and their effect on health, as well as modelling and social science issues. Their guiding research principle is supporting the sustainable use of natural resources and helping to secure these basic requirements of life over the long term under the influence of global change. The UFZ employs 900 people at its sites in Leipzig, Halle and Magdeburg. It is funded by the German government and by the states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.
The Helmholtz Association helps solve major, pressing challenges facing society, science and the economy with top scientific achievements in six research areas: Energy, Earth and Environment, Health, Key Technologies, Structure of Matter, Transport and Space. With 25,700 employees in 15 research centres and an annual budget of around EUR 2.3 billion, the Helmholtz Association is Germanys largest scientific organisation. Its work follows in the tradition of the great natural scientist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894).
Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine