Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Carnegie Mellon Scientists Track Neuronal Stem Cells Using MRI

30.09.2011
Patented MRI Reporter Technology Could Inform Treatment for Brain Injury and Neurological Disease

Carnegie Mellon University biologists have developed an MRI-based technique that allows researchers to non-invasively follow neural stem cells in vivo.

The recently patented technology could be used to further the study of neural stem cells and inform the development of new treatments for brain injury caused by trauma, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders. The findings, authored by Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Eric Ahrens and Biological Sciences postdoctoral student Bistra Iordanova, are published online in the journal NeuroImage.

Legend had it that once a brain cell dies, it’s lost forever. Neuroscientists now know that this is purely myth, having proved that the brain is constantly producing new neurons. These neural stem cells are born deep in an area of the brain called the subventricular zone. As time goes on, the cells, also called neuroblasts, make their way to other areas of the brain where they mature into functioning neurons. The brain’s ability to regenerate its cells is of great interest to scientists.

“If we could better understand the molecular migratory signals that guide neuroblasts, we could try to redirect these cells to areas of the brain harmed by stroke or traumatic brain injury. With this information, scientists might be able to one day repair the brain,” said Ahrens, who also is a member of the Pittsburgh NMR Center for Biomedical Research.

Studying cells in a living brain is problematic. Common forms of in vivo cell imaging like fluorescence and bioluminescence rely on light to produce images, making them unsuitable for viewing neuroblasts buried deep beneath the skull and layers of opaque tissue. Until now, scientists had only been able to study neuronal stem cells by looking at slices of the brain under a microscope. Ahrens was able to surmount this problem using MRI technology.

Rather than light, MRI uses magnets to create high-resolution images. A typical MRI scan uses a magnetic field and radio frequency pulses to cause the hydrogen protons found in the body’s water molecules to give off signals. Those signals are converted into a high-resolution image.

At the foundation of this work is a technology Ahrens developed. As reported in a 2005 issue of Nature Medicine, Ahrens developed a method that causes cells to produce their own contrast agent allowing them to be imaged with MRI. Using a viral vector, Ahrens incorporated the gene that produces the naturally occurring metalloprotein ferritin into living cells. Ferritin, which is present in all biological cells, harvests and stores naturally occurring iron. When the cells tagged with ferritin began to produce increased amounts of the protein, they draw in additional iron, turning themselves into nanomagnets. This disrupts the magnetic field surrounding the tagged cells, changing the signal given off by adjacent water molecules. This change appears as dark spots on the MRI image indicating the cells' presence. Since then, Ahrens’ team has improved on the process, developing an engineered form of ferritin that is a more effective MRI reporter than naturally occurring ferritin.

In the current study, Iordanova and Ahrens used the same technique as in the initial study, this time tagging neuroblasts with the engineered ferritin. They incorporated the DNA sequence for the engineered metalloprotein into an adenovirus vector, which they then injected into the subventricular zone of a rat brain. The adenovirus infected the neural stem cells giving the cells the genetic instructions to begin producing the ferritin reporter. Iordanova then imaged the brain with MRI and found that she was able to follow — in real time — the neuroblasts as they traveled toward the olfactory bulb and ultimately formed new inhibitory neurons. These results mirrored what had been observed in histology studies.

Recently, Carnegie Mellon received a patent for the reporter. Ahrens hopes to continue to develop the technology in order to allow researchers to better understand neuronal stem cells and how neurons regenerate. Ahrens also plans to use the reporters to improve clinical trials of cell-based therapies. By incorporating the reporter into the cells before implantation, researchers would be able to find the answer to a number of critical questions.

“Where do these cells go, days, weeks and months later? How do we know that they’ve grafted to the right cells? Or have they grafted in the wrong place? Or died?” Ahrens asked. “The reporter can show us the answers.”

The National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health funded this research.

About Carnegie Mellon: Carnegie Mellon (www.cmu.edu) is a private, internationally ranked research university with programs in areas ranging from science, technology and business, to public policy, the humanities and the fine arts. More than 11,000 students in the university’s seven schools and colleges benefit from a small student-to-faculty ratio and an education characterized by its focus on creating and implementing solutions for real problems, interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation. A global university, Carnegie Mellon’s main campus in the United States is in Pittsburgh, Pa. It has campuses in California’s Silicon Valley and Qatar, and programs in Asia, Australia, Europe and Mexico. The university is in the midst of a $1 billion fundraising campaign, titled “Inspire Innovation: The Campaign for Carnegie Mellon University,” which aims to build its endowment, support faculty, students and innovative research, and enhance the physical campus with equipment and facility improvements.

By: Jocelyn Duffy, jhduffy@andrew.cmu.edu, 412-268-9982

Jocelyn Duffy | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cmu.edu
http://www.cmu.edu/mcs/news/pressreleases/2011/09_27_NeuroblastReporter.html

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>