Using advanced multi-photon microscopy, the scientists have tracked the migration of immune cells called T cells within tumours in experimental models, and found that the surface molecule (CD44) directly impacts whether a tumour progresses or is rejected by T cells.
Professor Wolfgang Weninger, Head of the Immune Imaging program at Centenary, says this discovery advances our knowledge of the immune processes at play in cancer.
"The immune system and cancer were first linked in the 1900s but it wasn't until the 1980s that interactions between the immune system and cancer cells became a focus for medical researchers," says Professor Weninger.
"We know that migration of T cells within tumours is very important for rejection but we didn't know about how it worked. We found that this particular molecule regulates the navigation of T cells in tumours. In its absence, T cells are inhibited in migration and show a defect in their ability to reject a tumour."
Understanding how tumours avoid the natural processes of the immune system is one of the biggest questions in cancer. Finding the answer could significantly improve cancer treatment.
Professor Weninger explains: "By understanding how the immune system fights tumours, we may be able to optimise cancer therapies in the future. It may provide the opportunity to design treatments that mimic certain aspects of immune responses and cellular processes, making cancer treatments less hit and miss and reducing the toll on patients."
Centenary Institute Executive Director, Professor Mathew Vadas, points out this discovery has been made possible by recent advances in research technology – in particular multi-photon microscopy.
"Previously, cancer researchers could only build assumptions by linking series' of still images of the immune system at work," Professor Vadas says. "Multi-photon microscopy allows us to make real time movies showing exactly how the immune cells interact and is opening up new frontiers for medical research."
Professor Weninger, a world leader in this form of imaging, is driving this research revolution using one of Australia's first multi-photon microscopes at the Centenary Institute in Sydney.
This discovery firmly places Professor Weninger and his team's focus on the next piece of the puzzle - how does the actual process of tumour rejection work?
"This next stage of our research is very exciting. What are the physical interactions of T cells and tumours and how do the T cells actually defeat a tumour?" says Professor Weninger. "If we can get to the bottom of these immune system interplays, the benefits for cancer patients around the world could be truly enormous."
More genes are active in high-performance maize
19.01.2018 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
How plants see light
19.01.2018 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.
We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...
What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.
Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...
08.01.2018 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
19.01.2018 | Materials Sciences
19.01.2018 | Health and Medicine
19.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy