Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

BUSM researchers identify genes that influence hippocampal volume

16.04.2012
An international team of researchers led by Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) has identified four loci that appear to be associated with decreasing the volume of the hippocampus.

The hippocampus is the region of the brain that plays an important role in the formation of specific, new memories, which is an ability that patients with Alzheimer's disease lose. The findings may have broad implications in determining how age, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases impact the function and integrity of the hippocampus.

Sudha Seshadri, MD, professor of neurology at BUSM, is a senior author of the study, which will be published online in Nature Genetics.

Previous research has shown that the hippocampus is one of the brain regions involved with short and long-term memory processes and that it shrinks with age. It also is one of the first regions to exhibit damage from Alzheimer's disease, which can cause memory problems and disorientation.

... more about:
»BUSM »Framingham »brain aging »risk factor

"One of the problems with studying the genetics of a disease like Alzheimer's, which becomes symptomatic later in life, is that many people die of other causes before they reach the age at which they might have manifested the clinical dementia associated with the disease," said Seshadri. "To get around this issue, we have been studying the genetics of traits that we know are associated with a high future risk of Alzheimer's disease but that can be measured in everyone, often 10 to 20 years before the age when most persons develop clinical symptoms."

The potential genetic traits are called endophenotypes, and hippocampal volume is one such trait. The hippocampus shrinks before and during the progression of Alzheimer's disease, but other factors, such as vascular risk factors and normal aging, also lead to the decrease in size.

"Our research team wanted to pinpoint the genetic causes of changes in the hippocampal volume in a sample of apparently normal older persons," said Seshadri.

The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium allowed the researchers to gather data on hippocampal volume from 9,232 people who did not have dementia. They identified four genetic loci, including seven genes in or near these loci that appear to determine hippocampal volume.

The results show that if one of the genes is altered, the hippocampus is, on average, the same size as that of a person four to five years older. These results were replicated in two large European samples that included a mixed-age sample that included some participants with cognitive impairment.

"The findings indicate that these loci may have broad implications for determining the integrity of the hippocampus across a range of ages and cognitive capacities," said Seshadri. One of the genes identified by the researchers was also shown to play a role in memory performance in a different data sample.

The identified genetic associations indicate that certain genes could influence cell death by apoptosis, brain development and neuronal movement during brain development, and oxidative stress. Additionally, the researchers found that the genes play a role in ubiquitination, which is a process by which damaged proteins are removed, whereas other genes code for enzymes targeted by new diabetes medications.

"Future studies need to further explore these genetic regions in order to better understand the role of these genes in determining hippocampal volume," added Seshadri.

One of the largest cohorts involved in the study was the Framingham Heart Study cohort, affiliated with BUSM. Seshadri is a Senior Investigator at the Framingham Heart Study.

"Such important research would not be possible without the ongoing dedication of the Framingham study participants, which now span three generations and six decades," said Seshadri.

This study was funded primarily through the National Institute on Aging.

Jenny Eriksen | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bmc.org

Further reports about: BUSM Framingham brain aging risk factor

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Study suggests oysters offer hot spot for reducing nutrient pollution
17.10.2017 | Virginia Institute of Marine Science

nachricht World first for reading digitally encoded synthetic molecules
17.10.2017 | CNRS

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

Im Focus: New nanomaterial can extract hydrogen fuel from seawater

Hybrid material converts more sunlight and can weather seawater's harsh conditions

It's possible to produce hydrogen to power fuel cells by extracting the gas from seawater, but the electricity required to do it makes the process costly. UCF...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Study suggests oysters offer hot spot for reducing nutrient pollution

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

17.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

World first for reading digitally encoded synthetic molecules

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>