An international research team found that a more than two million year-old early human ingested large nuts and seeds that may have been "foods of last resort". The ability to eat foods that were difficult to process could have been an ecologically significant adaptation.
The article "The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Australopithecus africanus," is the first of a series devoted to the study of the mechanics of feeding in primates and Australopithecines.
The results showed that Australopithecus africanus, a human relative that lived in South Africa over two million years ago, had a facial skeleton that was well designed to withstand premolar bites. This suggests that A. africanus might have used its enlarged premolars and structurally reinforced face to crack open and ingest large hard nuts. These nuts may have been critical resources upon which these humans relied during times of resource scarcity or when their preferred foods were unavailable.
The scientists implement advanced techniques for their research. The team of Gerhard Weber from the University of Vienna provided the basis with Virtual Anthropology (VA). Then David Strait and his workgroup from the University of Albany, NY, conducted the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The FEA an engineering method used to examine how objects of complex geometry respond to loads.
University of Vienna: Center of Virtual Anthropology
Before FEA can be applied, an accurate 3D model of the fossil’s skull is needed. At University of Vienna, Gerhard Weber’s workgroup “Virtual Anthropology” is one of the few centers where such kind of reconstructions of fossil specimens can be undertaken. After scanning the fossils with computer tomography the digital copies can be handled and measured electronically. Also unwanted structures like former plaster reconstructions or embedded stone matrix can be removed without touching the precious originals again. “In this case we were lucky to have teeth available from a very similar other specimen so that we could reconstruct the edentulous face of ‘Mrs. Ples’, as the fossil is called” says Weber.
Gerhard Weber leads a European network funded by the EU (European Virtual Anthropology Network – EVAN). The network aims to spread this kind of technology in Europe and to train young researchers. Applications meanwhile reached the medical sector as well where diagnosis and implant planning exploit the same methods as those used for investigating fossils.
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Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
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Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
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A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
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