Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Bioengineers Fill Holes in Cellular Self-Organization

08.10.2008
The chemical and biological aspects of cellular self-organization are well-studied; less well understood is how cell populations order themselves biomechanically – how their behavior and communication are affected by high density and physical proximity.

Bioengineers and physicists at the University of California San Diego, in a paper published in the current issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, have begun to address these fundamental questions.

The UC San Diego scientists focused their research on dense colonies of the rod-shaped bacteria Escherichia coli. By analyzing the spatial organization of the bacteria in a microfluidic chemostat – a kind of mini-circuit board for liquids rather than electrons – they found that growth and expansion of a dense colony of cells leads to a dynamic change from relative disorder to a remarkable re-orientation and alignment of the rod-like cells.

That finding, described in their paper “Biomechanical Ordering of Dense Cell Populations,” allowed them to develop a model of collective cell dynamics, and to use this model to “elucidate the mechanism of cell ordering, and quantify the relationship between the dynamics of cell proliferation and the spatial structure of the population.”

One of the authors, Lev S. Tsimring, at UC San Diego’s Institute of Nonlinear Science, explained the bioengineers’ use of bacteria to study the biomechanical ordering of cells.

“When environmental conditions are harsh, bacteria like to stick together. The most typical form of bacterial organization in nature is a biofilm: a dense quasi-two-dimensional colony of bacteria. Biofilms grow in and on living tissues, the surfaces of rocks and soils, and in aquatic environments,” he said, “but they’re also found in man-made systems and devices such as industrial piping and artificial implants. And bacteria are known to actively migrate toward surfaces and small cavities, where they form high-density colonies.”

At low densities, he said, bacteria and other cells communicate “remotely” by sending chemical signals – “chemotaxis” – but, as they aggregate and form dense communities, direct biomechanical contacts play a bigger and bigger role in how they organize themselves.

“Although previous studies have explored the complex signaling mechanisms in the early stages of biofilm formation,” Tsimring said, “the biomechanics of direct cellular contacts have received little attention. We focused, therefore, on the structure and dynamics of a growing two-dimensional colony of non-motile bacteria.”

His fellow researcher, Jeff Hasty, at the Institute for Nonlinear Science and UC San Diego’s Department of Bioengineering, said the team’s work provides a multiscale description of cell colony growth.

“Our results reveal how cell growth and colony expansion trigger the formation of the orientational order in the population,” Hasty said, “which, in turn, affects the mechanical and biochemical properties of the colony.”

The details of their research, the authors say, helps scientists understand how the local interaction of elementary components leads to collective behavior and the formation of a highly organized system.

Tsimring and Hasty collaborated with Scott Cookson, of the Department of Bioengineering, and Dmitri Volfson, now at Rosetta Inpharmatics LLC.

Funding for the research was provided by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and UC MEXUS-CONACYT.

Paul K. Mueller | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood
23.02.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht New Mechanisms of Gene Inactivation may prevent Aging and Cancer
23.02.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

From rocks in Colorado, evidence of a 'chaotic solar system'

23.02.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

'Quartz' crystals at the Earth's core power its magnetic field

23.02.2017 | Earth Sciences

Antimicrobial substances identified in Komodo dragon blood

23.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>