Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Barrier in mosquito midgut protects invading pathogens

12.03.2010
Discovery may inform new strategies for blocking malaria transmission

What: Scientists studying the Anopheles gambiae mosquito – the main vector of malaria – have found that when the mosquito takes a blood meal, that act triggers two enzymes to form a network of crisscrossing proteins around the ingested blood.

The formation of this protein barrier, the researchers found, is part of the normal digestive process that allows so-called "healthy" or commensal gut bacteria to grow without activating mosquito immune responses.

But there is a downside: The barrier also prevents the mosquito's immune defense system from clearing any disease-causing agents that may have slipped into the blood meal, such as the Plasmodium malaria parasite, which in turn can be passed on to humans.

Disrupting the protein barrier, however, can trigger mosquito immune defenses to intervene and protect the insect from infection, notes the research team from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. The enzymes involved in the protein barrier are called immunomodulatory peroxidase (IMPer) and dual oxidase (Duox).

The researchers believe it might be possible to prevent the formation of the protein barrier by immunizing people with IMPer or the proteins that crisscross. This vaccine would generate antibodies that, after a mosquito feeds on a human, could disrupt the barrier, reduce parasite survival in the mosquito and prevent malaria transmission.

The role of IMPer-Duox in forming a protective barrier was unexpected – and previously unrecognized, according to Carolina Barillas-Mury, M.D., Ph.D., the senior study author. When her research group silenced, or turned off, the gene for either IMPer or Duox, the mosquito's midgut immune system took over and greatly reduced Plasmodium infection, indicating that IMPer and Duox are both required for parasite survival.

The IMPer-Duox system also is found in the mucous membrane of some human tissues, such as the colon. Dr. Barillas-Mury's group is investigating whether a protective protein barrier similar to that seen in mosquitoes also forms in vertebrates, including humans. If so, the barrier could be part of the process that normally prevents the colon from activating immune responses against commensal bacteria, as this would be harmful and lead to chronic inflammation. The existence of such a barrier in humans could have broad implications for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

Article: S Kumar et al. A peroxidase/dual oxidase system modulates midgut epithelial immunity in Anopheles gambiae. Science. DOI 10.1126/science.1184008 (2010).

Who: Carolina Barillas-Mury, M.D., Ph.D., chief of the Mosquito Immunity and Vector Competence Unit in NIAID's Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, is available to comment on this article.

Contact: To schedule interviews, please contact the NIAID Communications Office, 301-402-1663, kpekoc@niaid.nih.gov.

NIAID conducts and supports research—at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide—to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID Web site at http://www.niaid.nih.gov.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH)—The Nation's Medical Research Agency—includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

NIAID Communications Office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.niaid.nih.gov

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht 127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>