Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Bacterial Individualism: A Survival Strategy for Hard Times

10.05.2016

No two bacteria are identical – even when they are genetically the same. A new study reveals the conditions under which bacteria become individualists and how they help their group grow when times get tough.

Whether you are a human or a bacterium, your environment determines how you can develop. In particular, there are two fundamental problems. First: what resources can you draw on to survive and grow? And second: how do you respond if your environment suddenly changes?


Using so-called chemostats, bacterial cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca are supplied with varying concentrations of ammonium and an excess of gaseous nitrogen.

Frank Schreiber


NanoSIMS-image of K. oxytoca-cells. The color differences between individual cells show that genetically identical cells incorporate differing amounts of nitrogen into their cell mass.

Frank Schreiber

A group of researchers from Eawag, ETH Zurich, EPFL Lausanne, and the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen recently discovered that the number of individualists in a bacterial population goes up when its food source is restricted.

Their finding goes against the prevailing wisdom that bacterial populations merely respond, in hindsight, to the environmental conditions they experience. Individualists, the study finds, are able to prepare themselves for such changes well in advance.

Scarcity fosters diversity, diversity promotes flexibility

In a recent paper in the journal Nature Microbiology, researchers working with Frank Schreiber have shown that individual cells in bacterial populations can differ widely in how they respond to a lack of nutrients. Although all of the cells in a group are genetically identical, the way they process nutrients from their surroundings can vary from one cell to another. For example, bacteria called Klebsiella oxytoca preferentially take up nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+), as this requires relatively little energy.

When there isn’t enough ammonium for the entire population, some of the bacteria start to take up nitrogen by fixing it from elementary nitrogen (N2), even though this requires more energy. If the ammonium suddenly runs out altogether, these cells at least are prepared. While some cells suffer, the group as a whole can continue to grow. “Although all of the bacteria in the group are genetically identical and exposed to the same environmental conditions, the individual cells differ among themselves,” says Schreiber.

Detailed insights thanks to the latest technology

Schreiber and his colleagues were only able to reveal the astonishing differences between the bacteria by studying them very closely. “We had to measure nutrient uptake by individual bacterial cells – even though these are only 2 μm large,” explains Schreiber.

“Usually, microbiologists study the collective properties of millions or even billions of bacteria. It was only thanks to the close collaboration between the research groups, and by pooling our expertise and technical equipment, that we were able to study the bacteria in such detail.”

Bacteria are individualists too

The present study shows to what extent individuality – in bacteria and in general – can be essential in a changing environment. Differences between individuals give the group new properties, enabling it to deal with tough environmental conditions. “This indicates that biological diversity does not only matter in terms of the diversity of plant and animal species but also at the level of individuals within a species,” says Schreiber.

Next, Schreiber and his colleagues plan to study whether the individualistic behavior of specific individuals is of equal importance in natural environments.

Original publication

Phenotypic heterogeneity driven by nutrient limitation promotes
growth in fluctuating environments. Frank Schreiber, Sten Littmann, Gaute Lavik, Stéphane Escrig, Anders Meibom, Marcel Kuypers, Martin Ackermann.
Nature Microbiology. DOI : http://doi.org10.1038/NMICROBIOL.2016.55


For further inquiries:

Frank Schreiber / +49 30 8104-1414/ frank.Schreiber@bam.de
Marcel Kuypers / +49 421 2028 602 / mkuypers@mpi-bremen.de
Martin Ackermann / +41 58 765 5122 / martin.ackermann@env.ethz.ch

or to the press service:

Dr. Manfred Schlösser / +49 421 2028 704 / presse@mpi-bremen.de
Dr. Fanni Aspetsberger / +49 421 2028 947 / presse@mpi-bremen.de
Andri Bryner / +41 58 765 51 04 / andri.bryner@ewag.ch

Participating institutes:
Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany
École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Eawag, Dübendorf and Kastanienbaum, Switzerland

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.mpi-bremen.de

Dr. Manfred Schloesser | Max-Planck-Institut für marine Mikrobiologie

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ambush in a petri dish
24.11.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New proton record: Researchers measure magnetic moment with greatest possible precision

High-precision measurement of the g-factor eleven times more precise than before / Results indicate a strong similarity between protons and antiprotons

The magnetic moment of an individual proton is inconceivably small, but can still be quantified. The basis for undertaking this measurement was laid over ten...

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

IceCube experiment finds Earth can block high-energy particles from nuclear reactions

24.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 'half-hearted' solution to one-sided heart failure

24.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

Heidelberg Researchers Study Unique Underwater Stalactites

24.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>