Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Bacteria network for food

26.02.2015

Bacteria connect to each other and exchange nutrients

It is well-known that bacteria can support each others’ growth and exchange nutrients. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, and their colleagues at the universities of Jena, Kaiserslautern, and Heidelberg, however, have now discovered a new way of how bacteria can achieve this nutritional exchange. They found that some bacteria can form nanotubular structures between single cells that enable a direct exchange of nutrients.


Electron micrograph of genetically modified Acinetobacter baylyi and Escherichia coli strains. The bacteria exchange amino acids via nanotubes (i.e. tube-like connections between cells).

© Universitätsklinikum Jena/Martin Westermann

Bacteria usually live in species-rich communities and frequently exchange nutrients and other metabolites. Until now, it was unclear whether microorganisms exchange metabolites exclusively by releasing them into the surrounding environment or whether they also use direct connections between cells for this purpose.

Scientists from the Research Group Experimental Ecology and Evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany addressed this question using the soil bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi and the gut microbe Escherichia coli. By experimentally deleting bacterial genes from the genome of both species, the scientists generated mutants that were no longer able to produce certain amino acids, yet produced increased amounts of others.

In co-culture, both bacterial strains were able to cross-feed each other, thereby compensating the experimentally induced deficiencies. However, separating the two bacterial strains with a filter that allowed free passage of amino acids, yet prevented a direct contact between cells, abolished growth of both strains. “This experiment showed that a direct contact between cells was required for the nutrient exchange to occur,” explains Samay Pande, who recently obtained his PhD at the Max Planck Institute in Jena on this research project and now started a postdoc at the ETH Zürich.

Observing the co-culture under the electron microscope revealed structures that formed between bacterial strains, which functioned as nanotubes and enabled the exchange of nutrients between cells. Especially remarkable, however, was the fact that only the gut microbe Escherichia coli was capable of forming these structures and connecting to Acinetobacter baylyi or other E. coli cells.

“The major difference between both species is certainly that E. coli is able to actively move in liquid media, whereas A. baylyi is immotile. It may thus be possible that swimming is required for E. coli to find suitable partners and connect to them via nanotubes,” explains Christian Kost, head of the Research Group Experimental Ecology and Evolution, which is funded by the Volkswagen Foundation.

“A lack of amino acids triggered the formation of nanotubes. Deleting a gene, which is involved in the production of a certain amino acid, caused the resulting bacteria to connect to other bacterial cells and − in this way − compensate their nutritional deficiency. However, nanotubes did not form when the required amino acids were supplemented to the growth medium, indicating that the formation of these structures obviously depends on how ‘hungry’ a cell is,” the scientist summarizes the results.

Cells that specialize on particular biochemical processes and thereby divide their labor can be advantageous for bacterial communities: Resources can be used more economically, thus enhancing growth and efficiency.

Whether the formation of nanotubes exclusively serves the mutual exchange of nutrients or whether some bacterial species also parasitize other bacterial cells in this way will be subject to further investigation. Moreover, it remains unclear whether bacteria can actively choose the cells to which they attach. After all, such tubular connections also pose a potential risk, because the partner on the other side of the tube could also provide harmful substances.

“To me, the most exciting question that remains to be answered is whether bacteria are in fact unicellular and relatively simply structured organisms or whether we are actually looking at some other type of multicellularity, in which bacteria increase their complexity by attaching to each other and combining their biochemical abilities,” Christian Kost summarizes.

His research focuses mainly on the question why organisms cooperate with each other. Using bacterial communities as experimentally tractable model systems will help to explain why so many organisms have developed a cooperative lifestyle in the course of their evolution.


Contact

Dr. Christian Kost
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena
Phone: +49 3641 571212

Email: ckost@ice.mpg.de


Angela Overmeyer M.A.
Press Office

Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena
Phone: +49 3641 57-2110

Email: overmeyer@ice.mpg.de


Original publication
Pande, S., Shitut, S., Freund, L., Westermann, M., Bertels, F., Colesie, C., Bischofs, I. B., Kost, C. (2015)

Metabolic cross-feeding via intercellular nanotubes among bacteria
Nature Communications

Dr. Christian Kost | Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cancer diagnosis: no more needles?
25.05.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found
25.05.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Flow probes from the 3D printer

25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering

Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found

25.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>