Molybdenum oxide particles can assume the function of the endogenous enzyme sulfite oxidase / Basis for new therapeutic application
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have discovered that molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles oxidize sulfite to sulfate in liver cells in analogy to the enzyme sulfite oxidase. The functionalized Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles can cross the cellular membrane and accumulate at the mitochondria, where they can recover the activity of sulfite oxidase.
Sulfite oxidase is a molybdenum containing enzyme located in the mitochondria of liver and kidney cells, which catalyzes the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate during the protein and lipid metabolism and therefore plays an important role in cellular detoxification processes.
A lack of functional sulfite oxidase is a rare but fatal genetic disease causing neurological disorders, mental retardation, physical deformities as well as degradation of the brain, which finally leads to premature death. Various dietary or drug treatments for a sulfite oxidase deficiency have been tried with moderate success.
It was the fact that molybdenum oxide is incorporated in the enzymes active site that provided the inspiration for the approach now taken by the team of scientists working under the lead of Professor Wolfgang Tremel of the JGU Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry as well as Dr. Dennis Strand and Professor Susanne Strand of the Department of Internal Medicine of the Mainz University Medical Center. The researchers hope that this study may lay the basis for a therapeutic application of molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles and therefore new possibilities to treat sulfite oxidase deficiency.
Lowered sulfite oxidase levels can cause health problems even for otherwise healthy persons. In addition, sulfites are used as preservatives in food, e.g., in red wine, grape juice, or pickles in a jar. People having low levels of the sulfite oxidase react with symptoms like fatigue, asthma, drop in blood sugar, or headache.
With their study the Mainz scientists enter scientifically uncharted territory, because so far there are just a few studies of enzymatically active nanoparticles. "It is indeed astonishing, that simple inorganic nanoparticles can mimic an enzymatic activity," said Ruben Ragg, first author of this study.
In a previous work Professor Wolfgang Tremel and his team had shown that vanadium oxide nanowires contain an enzymatically induced antifouling activity that efficiently prevents ships from being infested by marine microorganisms. "It is a long-standing goal of chemistry to synthesize artificial enzymes that imitate the essential and general principles of natural enzymes," added Tremel.
There is growing evidence that nanoparticles can act as enzyme mimics. Some nanomaterials were reported to exhibit enzyme-like activities, but the hallmark of enzyme chemistry would be to catalyze transformations in cells in the presence of other competing reactions.
This is difficult to achieve, as it requires compatibility with other cellular reactions operating under similar conditions and rates. Therefore, artificial enzymes are not only useful for an understanding of the reaction mechanism of native enzymes but also for future applications as therapeutic agents.
At the same time, the use of molybdenum nanoparticles would have several benefits. "Molybdenum oxide particles are considerably cheaper and also more stable than genetically produced enzymes," added Dr. Filipe Natalio, cooperation partner from Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg.
Natalio is designing new materials that can mimic complex structures found in nature by bringing together a wide range expertise from material sciences to biology and chemistry. The next steps of the project will be to test if the enzyme activity of the nanoparticles can be retained in living organisms.
The research teams were supported by an interdisciplinary grant from the JGU Center for Natural Sciences and Medicine (NMFZ) and the Max Planck Graduate Center (MPGC).
Ruben Ragg, et al.
Molybdenum Trioxide Nanoparticles with Intrinsic Sulfite Oxidase Activity
ACS Nano 2014, 8 (5), pp. 5182–5189, 4 April 2014
Professor Wolfgang Tremel
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)
55099 Mainz, GERMANY
phone +49 6131 39-25135
fax +49 6131 39-25605
Dr. Dennis Strand, Professor Susanne Strand
Department of Internal Medicine
Mainz University Medical Center
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)
55131 Mainz, GERMANY
phone + 49 6131 17-9782
e-mail: email@example.com // firstname.lastname@example.org
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn501235j - Article ;
http://www.uni-mainz.de/presse/15482_ENG_HTML.php - press release "Inspired by nature: Paints and coatings containing bactericidal agent nanoparticles combat marine fouling", 2 July 2012
Petra Giegerich | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
Learning from Nature: Genomic database standard alleviates search for novel antibiotics
02.09.2015 | Max-Planck-Institut für marine Mikrobiologie
Orang-utan females prefer cheek-padded males
02.09.2015 | Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig
China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from University of Arizona geoscientists. The study is the first to explain how the steep-fronted plateau formed.
China's Loess Plateau was formed by wind alternately depositing dust or removing dust over the last 2.6 million years, according to a new report from...
The leaves of the lotus flower, and other natural surfaces that repel water and dirt, have been the model for many types of engineered liquid-repelling surfaces. As slippery as these surfaces are, however, tiny water droplets still stick to them. Now, Penn State researchers have developed nano/micro-textured, highly slippery surfaces able to outperform these naturally inspired coatings, particularly when the water is a vapor or tiny droplets.
Enhancing the mobility of liquid droplets on rough surfaces could improve condensation heat transfer for power-plant heat exchangers, create more efficient...
Longer, more severe, and hotter droughts and a myriad of other threats, including diseases and more extensive and severe wildfires, are threatening to transform some of the world's temperate forests, a new study published in Science has found. Without informed management, some forests could convert to shrublands or grasslands within the coming decades.
"While we have been trying to manage for resilience of 20th century conditions, we realize now that we must prepare for transformations and attempt to ease...
A University of Oklahoma astrophysicist and his Chinese collaborator have found two supermassive black holes in Markarian 231, the nearest quasar to Earth, using observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.
The discovery of two supermassive black holes--one larger one and a second, smaller one--are evidence of a binary black hole and suggests that supermassive...
A team of European researchers have developed a model to simulate the impact of tsunamis generated by earthquakes and applied it to the Eastern Mediterranean. The results show how tsunami waves could hit and inundate coastal areas in southern Italy and Greece. The study is published today (27 August) in Ocean Science, an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).
Though not as frequent as in the Pacific and Indian oceans, tsunamis also occur in the Mediterranean, mainly due to earthquakes generated when the African...
20.08.2015 | Event News
20.08.2015 | Event News
19.08.2015 | Event News
02.09.2015 | Physics and Astronomy
02.09.2015 | Life Sciences
02.09.2015 | Awards Funding