Still today, little is known on how this remarkable diversity arose. Scientists of the Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden and the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) in Berlin therefore investigated the potential of aquatic insects for research on diversification. The results have now been published in the renowned Annual Review for Entomology.
A typical karst spring and stream in the western Balkan Peninsula that is home to a microendemic caddisfly species of the genus Drusus.
© Ana Previsic
Freshwaters cover less than 1% of the Earth’s surface, but harbour 10% of all animal. Six out of ten of currently known species are insects. In a recently published review an international team of researchers from the Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), the Biodiversity Center in Leiden, and the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) in Berlin analyzed how studying the vast diversity of aquatic insects may contribute to a better understanding of diversification processes.
„Analyzing the reasons behind the disproportionately high degree of aquatic insect diversity relative to the little area covered by freshwaters may help us to better understand species diversification“, specifies Dr. Steffen Pauls, leader of a junior research group at the BiK-F and one of the authors of the review. All aquatic insect groups are the result of the invasion of freshwaters by terrestrial groups: „Although belonging to only 12 orders, aquatic insects may represent more than 50 separate invasions“, explains co-author Dr. Klaas-Douwe Dijkstra from the Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden.
The ecology and habitat preferences of many aquatic insect groups have been intensively studied, due to their roles as disease vectors or bioindicators for water quality. But as this research is mostly done in a purely ecological context, these species are underrepresented in evolutionary studies. „And even inside the entomological community, there is often a lack of communication between experts on different groups of insects. So we hope this review will stimulate more exchange and promote interdisciplinary research “, Dijkstra points out.
He who lives in a safe home, doesn’t need to moveEcological diversity results from a complex set of environmental influences. One important factor affecting diversification is habitat stability. The researchers present a model that explores the correlation of habitat stability, speciation and spreading rates under environmental change of aquatic insects. These processes strongly affect and are intricately linked with the life cycles of aquatic insects, as one and the same species may switch between a non-flying, aquatic immature life stage, and a flying terrestrial adult stage.
Co-author Dr. Michael T. Monaghan, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries in Berlin, sums up: „Our model demonstrates a non-linear relationship between habitat stability and dispersal ability of species. Standing waters harbor a larger proportion of species that appear to have evolved the propensity to move to another habitat if conditions change. This can result in the emergence of new species based on geographical diversification. Organisms in running water disperse less, therefore must adapt to changing environmental conditions, which may be another important speciation mechanism. It makes the mixture of habitats an ideal place to study ecological diversification.”
Overview of the research potential of different aquatic insects
The authors summarize and highlight the value of major aquatic insect lineages for biodiversity research.
The diversification of the caddisfly genus Drusus is well suited to investigate speciation taking place at the interface of geographical and ecological diversification. „In the streams and springs of the western Balkan Mountains you can find a whole range of Drusus species. Across the whole mountain range different microendemic species have evolved in every valley– right down to Greece“, says Pauls. „The trigger might be geographical diversification, as waters are isolated by the progressing karst formation“, the entomologist suggests. Different temperature preferences of individual species however, highlight that ecological diversification also plays an important role in the process.Temperature adaptation is another focus of research interest, e.g. in non-biting midges (Chironomidae). These highly adaptive midges with their plumose antennae comprise tropical and antarctic species and occur in altitudes from 6000 above sea level to 1000 below sea level (even in marine environments). They tolerate temperatures from -20° until +40° Celsius, and their lifecycles last from seven days to seven years.
Sabine Wendler | Senckenberg
Single atom alloy platinum-copper catalysts cut costs, boost green technology
09.10.2015 | Tufts University
Controllable protein gates deliver on-demand permeability in artificial nanovesicles
09.10.2015 | Universität Basel
Nondestructive material testing (NDT) is a fast and effective way to analyze the quality of a product during the manufacturing process. Because defective materials can lead to malfunctioning finished products, NDT is an essential quality assurance measure, especially in the manufacture of safety-critical components such as automotive B-pillars. NDT examines the quality without damaging the component or modifying the surface of the material. At this year's Blechexpo trade fair in Stuttgart, Fraunhofer IZFP will have an exhibit that demonstrates the nondestructive testing of high-strength automotive body parts using 3MA. The measurement results are available in a matter of seconds.
To minimize vehicle weight and fuel consumption while providing the highest level of crash safety, automotive bodies are reinforced with elements made from...
The MICADO camera, a first light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), has entered a new phase in the project: by agreeing to a Memorandum of Understanding, the partners in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Austria, and Italy, have all confirmed their participation. Following this milestone, the project's transition into its preliminary design phase was approved at a kick-off meeting held in Vienna. Two weeks earlier, on September 18, the consortium and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which is building the telescope, have signed the corresponding collaboration agreement.
As the first dedicated camera for the E-ELT, MICADO will equip the giant telescope with a capability for diffraction-limited imaging at near-infrared...
Self-driving cars will be on our streets in the foreseeable future. In Graz, research is currently dedicated to an innovative driver assistance system that takes over control if there is a danger of collision. It was nature that inspired Dr Manfred Hartbauer from the Institute of Zoology at the University of Graz: in dangerous traffic situations, migratory locusts react around ten times faster than humans. Working together with an interdisciplinary team, Hartbauer is investigating an affordable collision detector that is equipped with artificial locust eyes and can recognise potential crashes in time, during both day and night.
Inspired by insects
An interdisciplinary team of researchers has built the first prototype of a miniature particle accelerator that uses terahertz radiation instead of radio...
At present, tiny magnetic whirls – so called skyrmions – are discussed as promising candidates for bits in future robust and compact data storage devices. At...
01.10.2015 | Event News
30.09.2015 | Event News
17.09.2015 | Event News
09.10.2015 | Earth Sciences
09.10.2015 | Life Sciences
09.10.2015 | Life Sciences