The human tumor tissue is implanted in the same nude mouse organ from which it came. This type of implant, called orthotopic, can reproduce the histological, genetic and epigenetic human tumors and the patterns of tumor spread, which is not achieved with other methods of implementation. Furthermore, these tumor models will be keys to the development of the so-called personalized medicine against various cancers. Besides ovarian tumors, researchers are experienced in orthotopic implantation of other tumors such as colon, pancreas, breast, endometrial or testicle, and liver metastases and neurofibromatosis. Researchers are currently developing models of lung, head and neck tumors.
The technique has shown the effectiveness of lurbinectedin (PM01183), a drug recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as "orphan drug" against ovarian cancer. This disease is the fifth leading cause of death among women. The survival rate is very low because it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and appear resistances to chemotherapy with cisplatin. So, it is necessary to find alternative treatments.
The lurbinectedin is a marine-derived drug developed by the pharmaceutical company Pharmamar, from the Zeltia group, which has been shown effective against ovarian tumors resistant to cisplatin in several studies. One of the most compelling studies in preclinical level is the work published now in Clinical Cancer Research. The article confirms that orthotopic implants in laboratory mice are useful not only to deepen the knowledge of tumors, but also to collaborate with the pharmaceutical industry in the process of developing new drugs to treat cancer. Lurbinectedin has recently demonstrated its efficacy in a Phase II study in treatment-resistant ovarian cancer.
The coordinator of the study and researcher at the IDIBELL and ICO, Alberto Villanueva, highlights the importance of the models developed in his laboratory that "allow obtaining tumors grown in mice that reproduce the immunohistochemical, genetic and epigenetic properties of the human tumors and its response to chemotherapy with cisplatin, that is the base of the treatment against ovarian cancer."
Lurbinectedin (PM01183), a New DNA Minor Groove Binder, Inhibits Growth of Orthotopic Primary Graft of Cisplatin-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Vidal A, Munoz C, Guillen MJ, Moreto J, Sara P, Martinez-Iniesta M, Figueras A, Padulles L, Garcia-Rodriguez FJ, Berdiel-Acer M, Pujana MA, Salazar R, Gil-Martin M, Marti L, Ponce J, Mollevi DG, Capella G, Condom E, Vinals F, Huertas D, Cuevas C, Esteller M, Aviles P, Villanueva A. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Raül Toran | EurekAlert!
Bacteria as pacemaker for the intestine
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The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
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