The human tumor tissue is implanted in the same nude mouse organ from which it came. This type of implant, called orthotopic, can reproduce the histological, genetic and epigenetic human tumors and the patterns of tumor spread, which is not achieved with other methods of implementation. Furthermore, these tumor models will be keys to the development of the so-called personalized medicine against various cancers. Besides ovarian tumors, researchers are experienced in orthotopic implantation of other tumors such as colon, pancreas, breast, endometrial or testicle, and liver metastases and neurofibromatosis. Researchers are currently developing models of lung, head and neck tumors.
The technique has shown the effectiveness of lurbinectedin (PM01183), a drug recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as "orphan drug" against ovarian cancer. This disease is the fifth leading cause of death among women. The survival rate is very low because it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and appear resistances to chemotherapy with cisplatin. So, it is necessary to find alternative treatments.
The lurbinectedin is a marine-derived drug developed by the pharmaceutical company Pharmamar, from the Zeltia group, which has been shown effective against ovarian tumors resistant to cisplatin in several studies. One of the most compelling studies in preclinical level is the work published now in Clinical Cancer Research. The article confirms that orthotopic implants in laboratory mice are useful not only to deepen the knowledge of tumors, but also to collaborate with the pharmaceutical industry in the process of developing new drugs to treat cancer. Lurbinectedin has recently demonstrated its efficacy in a Phase II study in treatment-resistant ovarian cancer.
The coordinator of the study and researcher at the IDIBELL and ICO, Alberto Villanueva, highlights the importance of the models developed in his laboratory that "allow obtaining tumors grown in mice that reproduce the immunohistochemical, genetic and epigenetic properties of the human tumors and its response to chemotherapy with cisplatin, that is the base of the treatment against ovarian cancer."
Lurbinectedin (PM01183), a New DNA Minor Groove Binder, Inhibits Growth of Orthotopic Primary Graft of Cisplatin-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Vidal A, Munoz C, Guillen MJ, Moreto J, Sara P, Martinez-Iniesta M, Figueras A, Padulles L, Garcia-Rodriguez FJ, Berdiel-Acer M, Pujana MA, Salazar R, Gil-Martin M, Marti L, Ponce J, Mollevi DG, Capella G, Condom E, Vinals F, Huertas D, Cuevas C, Esteller M, Aviles P, Villanueva A. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Raül Toran | EurekAlert!
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22.09.2017 | DFG-Forschungszentrum für Regenerative Therapien TU Dresden
The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet
22.09.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
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Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
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