Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Amniotic Fluid May Provide New Source of Stem Cells for Future Therapies

02.04.2009
For the first time, scientists have shown that amniotic fluid (the protective liquid surrounding an embryo) may be a potential new source of hematopoietic stem cells for therapeutic applications. The study was prepublished online on February 12, 2009, in Blood, the official journal of the American Society of Hematology.

“Building on observations made by other scientists, our research team wondered whether hematopoietic stem cells could be detected in amniotic fluid.

We looked at the capacity of these cells to form new blood cells both inside and outside the body, and also compared their characteristics to other well-known sources of stem cells,” said senior study author Marina Cavazzana-Calvo, MD, PhD, of INSERM, the national French institute for health and biomedical research. Isabelle André-Schmutz, PhD, of INSERM, also a senior author of the study, added, “The answer was a resounding ‘yes’ – the cells we isolated from the amniotic fluid are a new source of stem cells that may potentially be used to treat a variety of human diseases.”

To conduct the study, amniotic fluid was collected from pregnant mice between 9.5 and 19.5 days post-coitus. Human amniotic fluid was collected during routine diagnostic procedures (amniocentesis) from volunteer donors between seven and 35 weeks of pregnancy.

Amniotic fluid (AF) cells that had markers similar to bone marrow stem cells (termed AFKL cells) were then isolated for use in experiments, as these cell markers were indicative of progenitor cells (cells that have the capacity to differentiate into other types of cells).

In vitro, AFKL cells from both mice and humans were able to generate all blood cell lineages, including red (erythroid) blood cells and white (myeloid and lymphoid) blood cells in experiments performed outside the animals. But the scientists also wanted to explore the AFKL cells’ hematopoietic (blood-forming) potential in vivo. Therefore, adult mice were irradiated to destroy their capacity to produce blood cells and injected with either AFKL cells or fetal liver cells. Fetal liver was used for comparison as it is the primary source for hematopoietic cells in developing embryos.

The peripheral blood of the transplanted mice was examined every four weeks, and after 16-18 weeks the blood-forming organs (bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes) of the mice were dissected. Transplants using mouse AFKL cells were found to be successful; newly formed white blood cells of all lineages derived from AFKL cells appeared in most of the irradiated mice four weeks after the procedure. As expected, all of these blood cell types were detected in all of the control group mice who received fetal liver cell transplants. Scientists continued to find AFKL-derived cells in the irradiated mice four months later, demonstrating the long-term ability of the transplanted cells to produce new blood cells.

Bone marrow samples from the transplanted mice were also taken and injected in a second set of mice and the peripheral blood of this new group of irradiated mice was analyzed and their hematopoietic organs examined after 10-13 weeks. The secondary transplants with mouse AFKL cells were partially successful with some of the mice engrafting the donor cells. This finding shows that AFKL cells have the ability to self-renew, a key characteristic of stem cells.

Though the human AFKL cells failed to reconstitute the hematopoietic system in irradiated, immunodeficient mice, experiments are currently underway to overcome obstacles that may have led to this failure, such as using a low number of cells for the injection and conducting the transplant in adult mice (engraftment is easier to obtain in newborn mice).

As additional confirmation of the probability that AFKL cells are indeed stem cells, the researchers examined them for the expression of specific genes known to be involved in hematopoietic development. The overall gene expression profile of the AFKL cells was found to resemble blood cell progenitors from known hematopoiesis sites such as the aorta-gonadmesonephros region, placenta, and the umbilical/vitelline arteries.

Reporters who wish to receive a copy of the study or arrange an interview with senior authors Drs. Cavazzana-Calvo and André-Schmutz, may contact Patrick C. Irelan at 202-776-0544 or pirelan@hematology.org.

The American Society of Hematology (www.hematology.org) is the world’s largest professional society concerned with the causes and treatment of blood disorders. Its mission is to further the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders affecting blood, bone marrow, and the immunologic, hemostatic, and vascular systems, by promoting research, clinical care, education, training, and advocacy in hematology. In September 2008, ASH launched Blood: The Vital Connection (www.bloodthevitalconnection.org), a credible online resource addressing bleeding and clotting disorders, anemia, and cancer. It provides hematologist-approved information about these common blood conditions including risk factors, preventive measures, and treatment options.

Blood, the official journal of ASH, is the most cited peer-reviewed publication in the field. Blood is issued to Society members and other subscribers weekly and is available in print and online at www.bloodjournal.org.

Patrick C. Irelan | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hematology.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Closing the carbon loop
08.12.2016 | University of Pittsburgh

nachricht Newly discovered bacteria-binding protein in the intestine
08.12.2016 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Closing the carbon loop

08.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Applicability of dynamic facilitation theory to binary hard disk systems

08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Scientists track chemical and structural evolution of catalytic nanoparticles in 3-D

08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>