By showing that anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Tregs) move to and from the skin whilst regulating an immune response, an international research team involving RIKEN researchers has provided insight into how immune cells behave during inflammation.
The team, including Michio Tomura, Shohei Hori and Osami Kanagawa from the RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology in Yokohama and Kenji Kabashima from the Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, used a specially engineered line of mice to track immune cells in a living animal model. The mice—developed previously by Tomura, Kanagawa and colleagues—express a protein called Kaede that usually causes their cells to glow green, but glow red once exposed to violet light. This color switching allowed the researchers to tag cells from one part of the body and track them as they moved elsewhere. “This kind of approach is only possible in our original Kaede mouse system and by collaboration among research centers within RIKEN,” says Tomura.
Tracking the tagged cells revealed that T cells traveled from the skin to a nearby lymph node in the absence of any immune stimulus, suggesting to the researchers that immune cells migrate through non-inflamed tissues as part of their surveillance function in the body.
When the researchers painted an antigen on the skin of these mice to induce an immune response, they observed an increase in the proportion of T cells in the nearby lymph node that had come from the skin. In mice with depleted immunosuppressive Tregs, they recorded an increase in skin swelling after antigen exposure. The team therefore believes that Tregs are required to reduce inflammation within the skin.
In tissue culture experiments, Tomura, Kabashima and colleagues found that the Tregs sourced from inflamed skin suppressed the proliferation of immune cells from the lymph node, better than Tregs that had not come from skin. The researchers suggest that was probably because skin Tregs expressed higher levels of anti-inflammatory molecules.
When they injected Tregs from inflamed skin of one mouse into inflamed skin of other mice, those Tregs reduced swelling better than cells from non-inflamed skin. The researchers also observed Tregs moving to newly inflamed areas of skin from other areas.
Since Tregs can travel to and from the skin while controlling immune responses in that organ, the researchers suggest that enhancing Treg migration or function could therefore be a promising therapeutic approach to dampen inflammation in various organs.
The corresponding author for this highlight is based at the Laboratory for Autoimmune Regulation, RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology
1. Tomura, M., Honda, T., Tanizaki, H., Otsuka, A., Egawa, G., Tokura, Y. Waldmann, H., Hori, S., Cyster, J.G., Watanabe, T., Miyachi, Y., Kanagawa, O. & Kabashima, K. Activated regulatory T cells are the major T cell type emigrating from the skin during a cutaneous immune response in mice. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 120, 883–893 (2010)
gro-pr | Research asia research news
Closing the carbon loop
08.12.2016 | University of Pittsburgh
Newly discovered bacteria-binding protein in the intestine
08.12.2016 | University of Gothenburg
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
08.12.2016 | Life Sciences
08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
08.12.2016 | Materials Sciences