Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital have found two new potential drug targets for treating arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis. By using proteomics to screen a vast number of molecules, the researchers identified PARP9 and PARP14 - two members of the PARP family of proteins - as regulators of macrophage activation, which has been linked to arterial disease by systems biology.
Though the mechanisms that activate macrophages, a type of digestive white blood cell that targets foreign cells, remain incompletely understood, previous research shows that macrophages play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications.
Masanori Aikawa, MD, PhD, director of the Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences (CICS) at the Brigham, his research fellow Hiroshi Iwata, MD, PhD, and colleagues studied atherosclerosis on the protein-level to determine which molecules were most involved in the regulation of macrophages.
Once Aikawa and his colleagues narrowed down their search to these two proteins, they silenced each gene in cultured macrophages and found that tamping down PARP14 increased macrophage activation while tamping down PARP9 had the opposite effect.
Aikawa founded CICS and hopes that this hypothesis-generating method can be used to streamline the lengthy process of drug development. Aikawa and CICS are using a more systematic approach which hinges on network analysis; this analysis predicts which pathways are most likely to control their studied effect so that they can prioritize these pathways. Ideally, this process would take a fraction of the time in comparison to searching through each individual pathway unaware of their likelihood of affecting their studied effect.
Aikawa and his colleagues plan to augment these findings to develop targeted therapeutics for atherosclerosis and other diseases.
"Macrophage activation plays a role in not only vascular disorders but also various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases," said Aikawa. "These results could provide important information about the mechanisms of these diseases and help to develop much needed new therapeutics."
Paper cited: Iwata H et al. "PARP9 and PARP14 cross-regulate macrophage activation via STAT1 ADP-ribosylation." Nature Communications DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS12849
Haley Bridger | EurekAlert!
Cancer diagnosis: no more needles?
25.05.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found
25.05.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)
The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.
Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...
A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.
The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...
At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.
At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...
There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?
At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
25.05.2018 | Event News
02.05.2018 | Event News
13.04.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Event News
25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering
25.05.2018 | Life Sciences