Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A multi-function protein is key to stopping genomic parasites from 'jumping'

23.09.2014

Keeping 'jumping genes' in check could help control some age-related diseases

Most organisms, including humans, have parasitic DNA fragments called "jumping genes" that insert themselves into DNA molecules, disrupting genetic instructions in the process. And that phenomenon can result in age-related diseases such as cancer.

But researchers at the University of Rochester now report that the "jumping genes" in mice become active as the mice age when a multi-function protein stops keeping them in check in order to take on another role.

In a study published today in Nature Communications, Professor of Biology Vera Gorbunova and Assistant Professor of Biology Andrei Seluanov explain that a protein called Sirt6 is needed to keep the jumping genes—technically known as retrotransposons—inactive. That's an entirely different function from the ones scientists had long associated with Sirt6, such as the repairing of broken DNA molecules and regulating metabolism.

"About half of the human genome is made up of retrotransposons," said Gorbunova. "By better understanding why these genomic parasites become active, we hope to better understand and perhaps delay the aging process in humans."

For the most part, retrotransposons remain silent and inactive in organisms' genomes. But once they do become active, these DNA fragments can duplicate themselves and "jump" to new areas of the genome, disrupting the function of another gene by landing in an important part of the gene and changing its DNA sequence information.

But what happens to the Sirt6 proteins that kept the jumping genes inactive in younger cells? The answer lies in the role that Sirt6 plays in repairing DNA damage. Cells accumulate a lot of DNA damage over time that needs to be constantly repaired. As cells get older, Sirt6 becomes busier in taking care of the DNA damage. Gorbunova and Seluanov hypothesized that Sirt6 becomes so preoccupied in repairing DNA damage in older cells that it is no longer available to keep the jumping genes inactive.

To test the theory, the team artificially caused DNA damage in young cells using gamma radiation or the chemical hydrogen peroxide. Once the damage took place, Sirt6 was immediately recruited to the damaged sites of the DNA to do its repair work.

Gorbunova and Seluanov found that the stressed cells—the ones with increased DNA damage—had a higher rate of "jumping gene" activity, when compared to the other cells. Then, when the amount of Sirt6 was artificially increased in the stressed cells, the retrotransposons did not become as readily active, keeping the genome safe.

"This suggests that supplying more Sirt6 protein might protect older cells from aging," said Gorbunova. "The idea would be to increase the Sirt6 pool so that enough proteins are available for both DNA repair and for keeping the retrotransposons inactive."

Peter Iglinski | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.rochester.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
21.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

21.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Scientists from the MSU studied new liquid-crystalline photochrom

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>