Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A matter of priorities - Bacteria evolved way to safeguard crucial genetic material

23.04.2012
Just as banks store away only the most valuable possessions in the most secure safes, cells prioritise which genes they guard most closely, researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory’s European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) have found.

The study, published online today in Nature, shows that bacteria have evolved a mechanism that protects important genes from random mutation, effectively reducing the risk of self-destruction. The findings answer a question that has been under debate for half a century and provide insights into how disease-causing mutations arise and pathogens evolve.

“We discovered that there must be a molecular mechanism that preferentially protects certain areas of the genome over others,” says Nicholas Luscombe, who led the research at EMBL-EBI. “If we can identify the proteins involved and uncover how this works, we will be even closer to understanding how mutations that lead to diseases like cancer can be prevented.”

Mutations are the reason each of us is unique. These changes to our genetic material are at the root of variation between individuals, and between cells within individuals. But they also have a darker side. If it affects an important gene – for example, rendering a tumour-suppressing gene useless – a mutation can have disastrous consequences. Nevertheless, protecting all genes from mutation would use up too many of the cell’s resources, just like holding all deposits in maximum-security safes would be prohibitively expensive. Iñigo Martincorena, a PhD student in Luscombe’s lab, has now found that cells evolved a ‘risk management’ strategy to address this issue.

Looking at 120 000 tiny genetic mutations called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 34 strains of the bacterium E. coli, the scientists were able to quantify how random the mutation rate was in different areas of the bacterial genomes. Their results showed that key genes mutate at a much lower rate than the rest of the genetic material, which decreases the risk of such genes suffering a detrimental mutation.

“We were struck by how variable the mutation rate appears to be along the genome,” says Martincorena. “Our observations suggest these bacteria have evolved a clever mechanism to control the rate of evolution in crucial areas of the genome.”

Using population genetics techniques, the researchers were able to disentangle the effects of mutation rate and natural selection on mutations, settling a long-standing debate in the field. Scientists have long thought that the chances of a mutation occurring were independent of its value to an organism. Once the mutation had occurred, it would undergo natural selection, spreading through the population or being eliminated depending on how beneficial or detrimental the genetic change proved to be.

“For many years in evolution there has been an assumption that mutations occur randomly, and that selection ‘cleans them up’,” explains Martincorena. “But what we see here suggests that genomes have developed mechanisms to avoid mutations in regions that are more valuable than others.”

Observations from studies of cancer genomes suggest that similar mechanisms may be involved in the development of cancers, so Luscombe and colleagues would now like to investigate exactly how this risk-managing gene protection works at a molecular level, and what role it may play in tumour cells.

Published online in Nature on 22 April 2012. DOI: 10.1038/nature10995.

Policy regarding use
EMBL press and picture releases including photographs, graphics, movies and videos are copyrighted by EMBL. They may be freely reprinted and distributed for non-commercial use via print, broadcast and electronic media, provided that proper attribution to authors, photographers and designers is made.
Sonia Furtado Neves
EMBL Press Officer
Meyerhofstr. 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Tel.: +49 (0)6221 387 8263
Fax: +49 (0)6221 387 8525
sonia.furtado@embl.de

Sonia Furtado Neves | EMBL Research News
Further information:
http://www.embl.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>