Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A light sensor in the brain: German scientists develop off-switch for nerve cells

28.03.2014

How do we learn? Why do we develop addictions? Is it possible to shut off an epileptic seizure?

Questions like these might now become easier to address: Scientists at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE) and Humboldt University in Berlin have created a novel molecular switch that could be a valuable new tool for brain research.

The new findings of Prof. Thomas Oertner, Prof. Peter Hegemann and their coworkers have just been published in the journal “Science”.

“We inverted the ion selectivity and turned an excitatory channel into an inhibitory one”, explains Prof. Thomas Oertner, director of the Institute for Synaptic Physiology at the Center for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg (ZMNH). “We were astounded to discover, that a single point mutation – changing a single letter of the genetic code – could be sufficient to completely invert the sign of current flowing through this channel. We also demonstrated that nerve cells can be selectively switched off with our new tool.”

... more about:
»DFG »Molecular »Neurobiology »Physiology »UKE »activity »proteins

This finding opens up new possibilities for basic research. Thomas Oertner and his team, for example, are planning to use this tool to investigate emotional aspects of learning. It is also conceivable that this channel could be used to dampen the activity of affected brain regions during epileptic seizures.

From algae to brain research – the emerging field of Optogenetics

Channelrhodopsins are proteins that are activated by light, allowing electrically charged ions to pass through biological membranes. Opening these channels changes the voltage across the membrane. In this way, nerve cells can be tuned on or shut off by light. Channelrhodopsins were discovered in unicellular green algae, which use them to swim towards light.

The biophysicist Prof. Peter Hegemann at Humboldt University in Berlin is credited with the discovery of channelrhodopsin, laying the foundation for the new field of optogenetics. With this latest discovery, optogeneticists have a completely new set of tools at their disposal: One of the new proteins, the chloride-conducting channelrhodopsin with slow kinetics or ‘slow ChloC’, opens its pore and shuts off neurons for several seconds after a short flash instead of needing constant light like the older inhibitory tools. “This means, we now need ten thousand times less light to block neuronal activity”, explains Thomas Oertner.

The research project at the UKE was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG).

Literature:
Wietek J, Wiegert JS, Adeishvili N, Schneider F, Watanabe H, Tsunoda SP, Vogt A, Elstner M, Oertner TG, Hegemann P (2014). Conversion of Channelrhodopsin into a light-gated chloride channel. Science, March 27, 2014. http://www.sciencexpress.org

Contact:
Prof. Dr. Thomas G. Oertner
Institute for Synaptic Physiology
Center for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg (ZMNH)
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE)
Falkenried 94
D-20251 Hamburg
Germany
Phone: +49 (40) 7410-58228
E-mail: thomas.oertner@zmnh.uni-hamburg.de

Christine Trowitzsch | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: DFG Molecular Neurobiology Physiology UKE activity proteins

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Could this protein protect people against coronary artery disease?
17.11.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Microbial resident enables beetles to feed on a leafy diet
17.11.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>