Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A new interplay between the reproductive germline and the body

26.08.2013
Dr. Björn Schumacher’s team at the University of Cologne uncovers a new type of communication through which germ cells (the precursors to sperm and eggs) instruct the body to increase its resistance to various types of stress.

When the DNA of germ cells is damaged, the production of offspring must be delayed until the genetic material is repaired. By studying the nematode worm model Caenorhabditis elegans, the researchers found that to gain more time to repair their DNA, germ cells activate the innate immune system that then triggers enhanced endurance of other body tissues.

Now, for the first time, it is clear how germ cells can influence the reproductive lifespan of the body when they require more time to guarantee accurate passage of the genetic material to the next generation. Moreover, the new insights might lead to a better understanding how the immune system mediates systemic responses to DNA damage, a process that plays an important role in the natural defense against cancer.

From generation to generation, the genetic material needs to be transmitted through the germline, where germ cells produce sperm and egg cells. The maintenance of the genome in germ cells is thus a prerequisite for the survival of the species. While germ cells continue their lives endlessly as they carry the genetic information to future generations, the somatic tissues (all non-reproductive cells of the body) function as their ever-ageing carriers. But how does the whole organism respond when the genome of germ cells is damaged thus preventing them from generating offspring?

In the current issue of Nature, Björn Schumacher’s group at the Excellence Cluster for Ageing Research at the University of Cologne reports a novel type of interplay between the germline and the somatic tissues. Strikingly, they found that the immune system alerts the body when germ cells are damaged. The scientists revealed that when the genome of germ cells is damaged, somatic tissues respond by elevated resistance to various stress factors. The increased stress resistance makes the somatic tissues more durable and enables the body to survive the stress longer, thus “buying” time to postpone progeny production until the germ cells have repaired their DNA.

The Cologne biologists identified the novel influence of the germline on somatic tissues by studying the simple nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. The worm is widely used as important model system because many biological processes that are relevant to human health are also present. Germ cells halt their activity when their genomes are damaged, thus halting offspring production. Schumacher’s team observed that the damaged germ cells produce innate immune factors that are normally secreted in the intestine when the worms have ingested pathogens. Indeed, the innate immune response to DNA damage in the germ cells made the worms more resistant to pathogen infection. In addition, the somatic tissues became highly durable even under environmental stress conditions. Furthermore, in the somatic tissues, the innate immune response led to elevated quality control of proteins, which contributed to this increased stress resistance. The scientists named this new phenomenon “germline DNA damage-induced systemic stress resistance” (GDISR).

The activation of innate immune responses to DNA damage is relevant for fighting cancer cells in humans. DNA damage in somatic human cells can lead to mutations that can transform cells into cancer cells. The human immune system reacts to the damaged cells in the body by eliminating them; however, some cancer cells acquire mutations that allow them to disguise themselves from the immune system and continue to grow. The new results from the Schumacher group provide a basis for the investigation of innate immune responses to DNA damage in a very simple biological system. These mechanisms might then enable the development of therapies that activate the immune system to effectively eliminate cancer cells.

It will be particularly interesting to investigate how the human body responds when the germ cells’ genomes are compromised. The foundation is now laid for better understanding how the human body responds to DNA damage in germ cells and how the reproductive capacity might be prolonged when germ cells require time to repair their genome.

Christoph Wanko | idw
Further information:
http://cecad.uni-koeln.de/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Polymers Based on Boron?
18.01.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Bioengineered soft microfibers improve T-cell production
18.01.2018 | Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

Im Focus: A thermometer for the oceans

Measurement of noble gases in Antarctic ice cores

The oceans are the largest global heat reservoir. As a result of man-made global warming, the temperature in the global climate system increases; around 90% of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Polymers Based on Boron?

18.01.2018 | Life Sciences

Bioengineered soft microfibers improve T-cell production

18.01.2018 | Life Sciences

World’s oldest known oxygen oasis discovered

18.01.2018 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>