Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A Code Beyond DNA

20.09.2011
Modified tRNA bases are characteristic of species

Our genetic code consists of four “letters” in the form of the nucleobases in our DNA and RNA. Three letters together form a “word” that are translated into an amino acid by tRNA and combined into proteins. Special markings subdivide the gene into active and inactive regions.

A third possible level of information has so far received less attention: the chemical modification of tRNA nucleobases. In the journal Angewandte Chemie Thomas Carell and a team at the University of Munich have now demonstrated that tRNA modification profiles can be used for the characterization of species and the differentiation of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacterial strains.

There are over 100 different modifications that occur in RNA, the exact informational function of which remains unknown. Some are thought to improve the maintenance of reading frames; others may influence the stability of the RNA or participate in “proofreading”. It was recently discovered that the entire collective of modified tRNA nucleosides is a regulative component of the stress response.

In order to learn more about the function of modified nucleobases, the researchers investigated which modifications occur in what numbers in various species. They examined several gram-positive and gram-negative strains of bacteria, various fungi, and different cell components from pigs.

It turns out that the set of modified bases, as a whole, is largely species-specific. Related species have similar profiles, while unrelated ones are clearly different. Says Carell: “We were able to use this data to compute a detailed family tree of the various species that agreed with results from conventional methods. The entire sets of base modifications of a species clearly developed under the pressure of evolutionary selection.”

The researchers compared pairs of pathogenic and nonpathogenic, as well as antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant bacteria. “The bacteria we studied are among the most dangerous clinical pathogens and are responsible for many deaths,” according to Carell. “It was possible to differentiate between the harmless and dangerous species by using the tRNA modification profile.” For the listeria and staphylococci that were analyzed, the pathogenic and resistant species had a significantly higher proportion of some modified bases. “This is an indication that the translation process, that is the translation of the genetic code into proteins, occurs in a significantly different way than in less dangerous strains of these bacteria.”

Author: Thomas Carell, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Germany), http://www.carellgroup.de
Title: Systems-Based Analysis of Modified tRNA Bases
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Permalink to the article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201103229

Thomas Carell | Angewandte Chemie
Further information:
http://pressroom.angewandte.org
http://www.carellgroup.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Rochester scientists discover gene controlling genetic recombination rates
23.04.2018 | University of Rochester

nachricht One step closer to reality
20.04.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

Im Focus: Basel researchers succeed in cultivating cartilage from stem cells

Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult stem cells originating from bone marrow. This is made possible by inducing specific molecular processes occurring during embryonic cartilage formation, as researchers from the University and University Hospital of Basel report in the scientific journal PNAS.

Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue regeneration. These adult stem...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Structured light and nanomaterials open new ways to tailor light at the nanoscale

23.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

On the shape of the 'petal' for the dissipation curve

23.04.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Clean and Efficient – Fraunhofer ISE Presents Hydrogen Technologies at the HANNOVER MESSE 2018

23.04.2018 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>