Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A CNIO study tracks the evolutionary history of a cancer-related gene

06.06.2013
The study reveals how a genetic duplication that occurred millions of years ago encouraged the evolution of the ASF1b gene, involved in cancer development

How and when evolution generates diversity or gives form to proteins, living beings' functional building blocks, are essential questions that still surround the theory of evolution. In humans, the majority of genes have emerged via genetic duplication, a strategy in which a gene generates two identical copies that can evolve to generate different proteins.

A study published today by scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) describes how a genetic duplication that took place in the vertebrate ancestor some 500 million years ago encouraged the evolution of the ASF1b gene; a gene essential for proper cell division and related to some types of cancer such as breast cancer. The results of the study are published in Molecular Biology and Evolution, one of the most prestigious journals in the field of molecular biology and evolution.

The conclusions of the study are the result of collaboration between the team led by Alfonso Valencia, Vice-Director of Basic Research and Director of CNIO's Structural Biology & Biocomputing Programme, and the team led by Genevieve Almouzni, a member of CNIO's Scientific Advisory Committee, at the Institut Curie in Paris, France.

Valencia says that: "When proteins have such a close similarity as the one that exists between the two human copies of the ASF1 gene—ASF1a and ASF1b—it is commonly assumed that they have similar functions in cells; in this case related to fundamental processes such as DNA remodelling and repair, cell division, cell proliferation and genetic transcription or activation".

THE GENOMIC ENVIRONMENT, KEY TO SUCCESS IN SEPARATING FUNCTIONS

Almouzni's team discovered several years ago that, despite the similarity in structure, the two copies of ASF1 were not redundant, but rather had divided up their ancestral functions. How and why, though, did this specialisation happen, and what biological advantages were conferred on the cells?

The authors of the study have used sophisticated ancestral state reconstruction methods in order to track the evolutionary history of ASF1 from its duplication. To this end, they have studied the genome of up to 40 species, some of them as diverse as sea urchins, lampreys, fish, frogs or a wide spectrum of mammals and birds.

Federico Abascal, first author of the study, explains that: "Our results suggest that ASF1b is the original copy that was duplicated millions of years ago. Following the duplication, the other copy moved twice within the genome, settling in very different surroundings to the original". Daniel Rico, one of the study's authors, adds that: "It is precisely this localisation of the two genetic duplicates in such different genomic environments that possibly opened up the door for ASF1b and ASF1a to follow different paths".

According to the researchers, the new genomic context and positive selection are responsible for the subtle differences between the two proteins, which are those that allow them to develop different functions.

"This function separation process put an end to the adaptive conflict in the ancestral gene, which should have simultaneously carried out very different competitive functions that were indispensable for the cells", says Valencia.

The researchers point out that studying the molecular history of genes is fundamental to understanding how they adapt to the functions they develop. In the case of proteins as important as ASF1, this knowledge is crucial for establishing the process of its deregulation in cancer.

Reference article:

Subfunctionalization via adaptive evolution influenced by genomic context: the case of histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b. Abascal F, Corpet A, Gurard-Levin ZA, Juan D, Ochsenbein F, Rico D, Valencia A, Almouzni G. Molecular Biology and Evolution (2013). doi: 10.1093/molbev/mst086

Press Office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cnio.es

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht What happens in the cell nucleus after fertilization
06.12.2016 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Simple processing technique could cut cost of organic PV and wearable electronics

06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

3-D printed kidney phantoms aid nuclear medicine dosing calibration

06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Robot on demand: Mobile machining of aircraft components with high precision

06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>