Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

A class of RNA molecules protects germ cells from damage, Penn vet researchers show

16.11.2012
Passing one's genes on to the next generation is a mark of evolutionary success. So it makes sense that the body would work to ensure that the genes the next generation inherits are exact replicas of the originals.

New research by biologists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine has now identified one way the body does exactly that. This protective role is fulfilled in part by a class of small RNA molecules called pachytene piwi-interacting RNAs, or piRNAs.

Without them, germ-cell development in males comes to a halt. Because these play such an important role in allowing sperm to develop normally, the research indicates that defects in these molecules or the molecules with which they interact may be responsible for some cases of male infertility.

Jeremy Wang, an associate professor of developmental biology and director of the Center for Animal Transgenesis and Germ Cell Research at Penn Vet, and Ke Zheng, a postdoctoral researcher in Wang's lab, authored the study, which appears in PLOS Genetics.

Scientists know of 8 million different piRNAs in existence; they are the most abundant type of small non-coding RNA. The molecule piRNA gets its name because it forms complexes with piwi proteins. Earlier work had indicated that these piwi-piRNA complexes suppress the activity of transposable elements or "jumping genes," which are stretches of DNA that can change position and cause potentially damaging genetic mutations. These sequences are also known as transposons.

"There are about 50 human diseases caused by transposable elements, so it's important for the body to have a way to try to repress them," Wang said.

This transposon-suppressing activity had been confirmed in a group of piRNAs called pre-pachytene piRNAs, which are expressed before meiosis, the unique process by which germ cells divide. But Zheng and Wang wanted to investigate if a separate group of piRNAs that emerge during meiosis, called pachytene piRNAs, were also required for "silencing" transposons.

Working in male mice, the researchers manipulated an enzyme called MOV10L1, which is known to interact with piwi proteins and is believed to help produce piRNA molecules. They created a mutant mouse in which they could selectively inactivate MOV10L1 at specific stages before, during and after meiosis. The mice that lost the function of MOV10L1 before or at the pachytene stage of meiosis were sterile. When Zheng and Wang examined their germ cells more closely, they found that spermatogenesis had apparently come to a halt at the post-meiotic stage: Early stages of the germ cells were present, but the mice completely lacked mature sperm.

Further experiments allowed Zheng and Wang to pinpoint that MOV10L1 was playing a critical role at the pachytene stage. MOV10L1 mutants lacked pachytene piRNAs, but their levels of pre-pachytene piRNAs were unaffected, as the mutation was "turned on" after they had already been produced.

The researchers also found that, in the MOV10L1 mutants, piwi proteins congregated together along with mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondria may be involved in the generation or organization of pachytene piRNAs. Furthermore, the spermatids, or early-stage sperm, of the mutants had severe DNA damage. While the researchers suspected that the damage may have been caused because of transposons that had been freed from repression in the absence of piRNAs, they actually found that two common transposable elements were not de-repressed in the mutants. They also found a build-up of pachytene piRNA precursors in the testes of the mutants. Their findings raise the possibility that there is another mechanism by which damage occurs.

"It could be the accumulation of precursor molecules is causing some of the damage," Wang said.

This new function for MOV10L1, in playing an essential role in producing pachytene piRNAs, gives researchers a greater understanding of germ-cell development.

"This is the first time we've shown that pachtyene piRNA is required for maintaining genome integrity in the post-meiotic germ cells," Wang said. "It turns out that MOV10L1 is a master regulator of the piRNA pathway and is required for the production of all piRNAs, both pre-pachytene and pachytene."

Any disruptions to this "master regulator" role, therefore, could lead to problems.

"I think we're just beginning to appreciate the significance of this pathway," Wang said. "Mutations at various points in the pathway could lead to infertility."

This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Katherine Unger Baillie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.upenn.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Researchers uncover protein-based “cancer signature”
05.12.2016 | Universität Basel

nachricht The Nagoya Protocol Creates Disadvantages for Many Countries when Applied to Microorganisms
05.12.2016 | Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

IHP presents the fastest silicon-based transistor in the world

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

InLight study: insights into chemical processes using light

05.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

High-precision magnetic field sensing

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>