Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

3-D map of blood vessels in cerebral cortex holds suprises

10.06.2013
Blood vessels within a sensory area of the mammalian brain loop and connect in unexpected ways, a new map has revealed.

The study, published June 9 in the early online edition of Nature Neuroscience, describes vascular architecture within a well-known region of the cerebral cortex and explores what that structure means for functional imaging of the brain and the onset of a kind of dementia.

David Kleinfeld, professor of physics and neurobiology at the University of California, San Diego, and colleagues mapped blood vessels in an area of the mouse brain that receives sensory signals from the whiskers.

The organization of neural cells in this brain region is well-understood, as was a pattern of blood vessels that plunge from the surface of the brain and return from the depths, but the network in between was uncharted. Yet these tiny arterioles and venules deliver oxygen and nutrients to energy-hungry brain cells and carry away wastes.

The team traced this fine network by filling the vessels with a fluorescent gel. Then, using an automated system, developed by co-author Philbert Tsai, that removes thin layers of tissue with a laser while capturing a series of images to reconstructed the three-dimensional network of tiny vessels.

The project focused on a region of the cerebral cortex in which the nerve cells are so well known that they can be traced to individual whiskers. These neurons cluster in "barrels," one per whisker, a pattern of organization seen in other sensory areas as well.

The scientists expected each whisker barrel to match up with its own blood supply, but that was not the case. The blood vessels don't line up with the functional structure of the neurons they feed.

"This was a surprise, because the blood vessels develop in tandem with neural tissue," Kleinfeld said. Instead, microvessels beneath the surface loop and connect in patterns that don't obviously correspond to the barrels.

To search for patterns, they turned to a branch of mathematics called graph theory, which describes systems as interconnected nodes. Using this approach, no hidden subunits emerged, demonstrating that the mesh indeed forms a continous network they call the "angiome."

The vascular maps traced in this study raise a question of what we're actually seeing in a widely used kind of brain imaging called functional MRI, which in one form measures brain activity by recording changes in oxygen levels in the blood. The idea is that activity will locally deplete oxygen. So they wiggled whiskers on individual mice and found that optical signals associated with depleted oxygen centered on the barrels, where electrical recordings confirmed neural activity. Thus brain mapping does not depend on a modular arrangement of blood vessels.

The researchers also went a step further to calculate patterns of blood flow based on the diameters and connections of the vessels and asked how this would change if a feeder arteriole were blocked. The map allowed them to identify "perfusion domains," which predict the volumes of lesions that result when a clot occludes a vessel. Critically, they were able to build a physical model of how these lesions form, as may occur in cases of human dementia.

Additional co-authors include Pablo Blinder, John Kaufhold, Per Knutsen and Harry Suhl. This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health, including a Director's Pioneer Award to Kleinfeld.

David Kleinfeld | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

nachricht How cheetahs stay fit and healthy
24.03.2017 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>