Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


2 genetic variations predict second cancers after radiation for children with Hodgkin lymphoma

A genome-wide association study published in the August issue of Nature Medicine has found two tiny genetic variations that can predict which patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma are most likely to develop radiation-induced second cancers years after treatment. Knowing in advance who is at risk could help physicians tailor treatment to reduce the risks for patients who are most susceptible to long-term damage.

Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most treatable cancers, with more than 90 percent of patients surviving after a combination of radiation and chemotherapy. But nearly 20 percent of patients treated as children develop a second cancer within 30 years. The younger the patients are when treated and the higher the radiation dose, the greater the risk. This late side effect of treatment is the second leading cause of death for long-term Hodgkin's survivors.

"This finding means we can better identify children who are most susceptible to radiation-induced cancers before treatment begins and modify their care to prevent this serious long-term complication," said Kenan Onel, MD, PhD, associate professor of pediatrics and senior author of the study. "Luckily our options for Hodgkin's are broad enough that we can find ways to control the initial disease without relying on radiation therapy."

"This is also a triumph for genome-wide association studies," he added. "Many previous GWAS studies found multiple genetic differences, with each of them playing only a modest role, with minimal impact on clinical management. In this study, which focused on the interaction between genes and a very specific environmental factor—cancer long after radiation therapy—a small number of genetic differences produced a very big impact."

Onel and colleagues analyzed the genomes of 178 Hodgkin's patients who had been treated between the ages of 8 and 20 with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Within 30 years after treatment, 96 of them had developed second cancers and 82 had not.

When they scanned each patient's genome, focusing on 665,313 tiny genetic variations known as single nucleotide polymorphisms, they found three variations that appeared far more often in patients with second cancers. When they repeated the study using a different set of patients—62 cases with second cancers and 71 without—two of the three markers were significant.

Those two markers were both from a small region known as 21q on chromosome 6. Both are positioned near a gene known as PRDM1.

The genetic variations closely associated with increased cancer risk, and with each other, appeared to decrease activation of the PRMD1 gene. They had no detectable effect any other genes. Cells with the protective version of both markers expressed PRDM1 after being exposed to radiation. Cells with the variants linked to subsequent cancers did not produce any PRDM1.

Previous studies have found that PRDM1 is involved in a variety of fundamental cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis—which can all go awry in cancer. The gene's activity is lost in many cancer types.

In Onel's small samples, only three percent of patients with both of the protective variants developed second cancers within 30 years; nearly 33 percent of those with both of the high-risk variations did.

"Taken together," the authors note, "our findings support a novel role for PRDM1 as a radiation-responsive tumor suppressor." PRMD1 may be important for understanding the causes of second cancers in survivors of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma as well as in other cancer patients treated with radiation therapy."

This study should also "bring some optimism" back to genome-wide association studies, Onel added. Most previous cancer-related markers found through GWAS have been "of little clinical value for predicting risk, response to therapy or survival." But by incorporating environmental exposure, such as radiation therapy, into genomic investigations, "much of the missing heritability can be revealed," he said. "By folding in the environmental component, we were able to ask a more targeted question. This approach could improve our ability to integrate genomics into routine cancer care."

The National Institutes of Health, the American Cancer Society, American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities, the Leukemia Lymphoma Society, the Breast Cancer Research Foundation, the Cancer Research Foundation, and the University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center supported this research.

Additional authors include Timothy Best, Andrew Skol, Sarah Jackson, Olufunmilayo Olopade and Stephanie Huang of the University of Chicago; Dalin Li, Thomas Mack, Wendy Cozen and David Conti of University of Southern California; Kenneth Offit and Thomas Kirchhoff of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; Yutaka Yasui of the University of Alberta; Smita Bhatia of City of Hope; Louise Strong of the MD Anderson Cancer Center; Susan Domchek and Katherine Nathanson of the University of Pennsylvania; and Leslie Robison of St Jude Children's Research Hospital.

John Easton | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Don't Give the Slightest Chance to Toxic Elements in Medicinal Products
23.03.2018 | Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)

nachricht North and South Cooperation to Combat Tuberculosis
22.03.2018 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Space observation with radar to secure Germany's space infrastructure

Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.

The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...

Im Focus: Researchers Discover New Anti-Cancer Protein

An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.

The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...

Im Focus: Researchers at Fraunhofer monitor re-entry of Chinese space station Tiangong-1

In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.

Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...

Im Focus: Alliance „OLED Licht Forum“ – Key partner for OLED lighting solutions

Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.

They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

New solar solutions for sustainable buildings and cities

23.03.2018 | Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

For graphite pellets, just add elbow grease

23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences

Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling plant growth

23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

Sharpening the X-ray view of the nanocosm

23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>