Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The mechanics of tissue growth

24.09.2014

Pitt, Carnegie Mellon engineers combine mechanics with biology to make key discovery about communication between cells.

When the body forms new tissues during the healing process, cells must be able to communicate with each other. For years, scientists believed this communication happened primarily through chemical signaling. Now researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh have found that another dimension – mechanical communication – is equally if not more crucial. The findings, published in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, could lead to advancements in treatments for birth defects and therapies for cancer patients.

"It's like 19th century scientists discovering that electricity and magnetism were the same force," said Lance Davidson, associate professor of Bioengineering at the University of Pittsburgh, who co-led the study. "The key here is using mechanical engineering tools and frameworks to reverse-engineer how these biological systems work, thereby giving us a better chance to develop methods that affect this cellular communication process and potentially treat various diseases related to tissue growth."

"We answered this very important biological question by building a new tool that enabled us to see these mechanical processes at the cellular level," said Philip LeDuc, professor of Mechanical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon, who co-led the study with Davidson. The researchers developed a microfluidic control system that delivers chemicals at extremely low flow rates over very small, specific areas, such as integrated collections of individual cells. They hypothesized that in addition to using chemical signals to communicate with each other, embryonic or regenerative cells also used mechanical processes – pushing and pulling on each other – to stimulate and respond.

"In order to identify these mechanical processes, we really had to control small parts of a multi-cellular tissue, which today's technology can finally allow us to do," Davidson explained. For example, a tissue sample two millimeters across may contain up to 8,000 cells. The microfluidic device enables researchers to "touch" as few as three or four and view the mechanical processes using a high resolution laser scanning microscope to view proteins moving in cells.

"We proved that mechanical processes are absolutely important along with chemical," LeDuc said. When the researchers disabled the mechanical connections between the cells using microfluidics, the ability of cells to communicate with each other dropped substantially. Although the cells communicated through chemical signaling as well, the cells' mechanical connections – their ability to push and pull on each other – were dominant in transmitting the signals.

Understanding this additional dimension could impact future research in tissue regeneration, from embryonic development to healing to cancer growth.

"If you are dealing with someone who has a birth defect, and their heart didn't form correctly, the question is how do you target it?" LeDuc asked. "This discovery leads us to believe there is a mechanical way to influence tissue development and one day help the cells better communicate with each other to heal the body."

###

Other researchers included YongTae Kim, now an assistant professor of biotechnology at Georgia Institute of Technology; Sagar D. Joshi, now a research scientist at Air Liquide; William C. Messner, now the Department Chair and Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Tufts University School of Engineering; Carnegie Mellon Research Assistants Melis Hazar Haghgoui and Jiho Song; and Pitt research assistants Timothy R. Jackson and Deepthi Vijayraghavan.

About Carnegie Mellon University:

Carnegie Mellon is a private, internationally ranked university with programs in areas ranging from science, technology and business to public policy, the humanities and the arts. More than 12,000 students in the university's seven schools and colleges benefit from a small faculty-to-student ratio and an education characterized by its focus on creating and implementing solutions for real world problems, interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation. A global university, Carnegie Mellon's campus in the United States is in Pittsburgh, Pa. It has campuses in California's Silicon Valley, Qatar, and programs in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and Mexico.

Contact: Paul Kovach
University of Pittsburgh
412-624-0265

About the Swanson School of Engineering

The University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering is one of the oldest engineering programs in the United States and is consistently ranked among the top 50 engineering programs nationally. The Swanson School has excelled in basic and applied research during the past decade and is on the forefront of 21st century technology including sustainability, energy systems, bioengineering, micro- and nanosystems, computational modeling, and advanced materials development. Approximately 120 faculty members serve more than 2,600 undergraduate and graduate students and Ph.D. candidates in six departments, including Bioengineering, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Materials Science.

Paul Kovach | Eurek Alert!

More articles from Interdisciplinary Research:

nachricht Easier Diagnosis of Esophageal Cancer
06.03.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Sandia uses confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance
27.02.2017 | DOE/Sandia National Laboratories

All articles from Interdisciplinary Research >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

When Air is in Short Supply - Shedding light on plant stress reactions when oxygen runs short

23.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Researchers use light to remotely control curvature of plastics

23.03.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Sea ice extent sinks to record lows at both poles

23.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>