Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Infrared remote sensing to measure the temperature of flames

09.04.2008
Scientists from the Universidad Carlos III of Madrid study the use of optical techniques for the measurement of parameters, mainly of the temperature of the flame, in combustion processes in order to control them automatically, reduce the contamination and increase efficiency.

In airplane engines or in some industrial combustion chambers, combustion reactions take place in extreme conditions of heat and pressure, making these environments too harsh for investigation. Nevertheless, a research group from the Universidad Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M) seeks new methods to improve sensing and data collection in such places.

Esteban García-Cuesta, supervised by Antonio J. de Castro and Inés M. Galván, from the departments of physics and Information Technology (IT) of the UC3M respectively, works in a multidisciplinary project for the recovery of physical properties of combustion processes, more specifically the temperature of the flame. This property is very important since it represents all the chemical information about the reaction. Hence, knowing the temperature, the global status of the reaction could be determined and modified automatically when required.

Castro and his team use computer simulations of optical techniques, in particular the infrared emission spectroscopy of the gases produced in the reaction, such as carbon monoxide (CO), or nitrogen oxides (NOx). These compounds, that have clear infrared emission spectral bands, have been selected by the researchers as the parameters to be measured. The spectral information is mathematically related to the temperature of the flame, allowing for its calculation inside a combustion chamber. However, there is the added complication that the translation of the spectra into a temperature profile exhibits a non linear relationship which Professor Castro considers a significant problem, since different temperatures could have very similar spectra, hence producing multiple answers rather than an unique value for the temperature.

Neural networks

The research team applied the multilayer perceptron neural network to translate the spectral data in to thermal data. Since the spectral measurements are taken in high definition, the required calculations for their interpretation using "machine learning" techniques is very high which reduces the performance. Professor Castro stated that although a lot of spectral data is required to evaluate the spectrum accurately, the excess of information is not suitable for a neural network approach. Hence new filters and extraction characteristic techniques must be developed to allow for a reduction in the number of parameters considered while maintaining the accuracy of the information. For this reason, the researchers apply the networks training as an intelligent process of information selection, in this case wavelengths, in order to extract the physical information required and avoid redundancy. Professor Castro underlines that the way in which the information is presented to the neural network is crucial, and at this precise point is where their research centres.

For next stage. these scientists plan to tackle the measurement of spectra in real systems. So far, they have managed to determine theoretical measurements of temperatures with accurate results (about 3 degrees Kelvin more precise at the hottest point of the flame). These computational studies aim to determine the viability of such techniques for the conversion of data.

This temperature monitoring, used in conjunction with feedback systems, could achieve automatic control of the combustion processes. These later systems would receive the information about the combustion reaction, analyse the status of the reaction and feed it back to the system, while possessing the capability to change variables such as the flow of gases and fuel involved, thereby grasping control over the whole process. This would be key for the reduction in the contamination produced and to attain an increased efficiency of the reaction.

The study Multilayer perceptron as inverse model in a ground-based remote sensing temperature retrieval problem has been published in the magazine Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence by Esteban García Cuesta, Inés M. Galván y Antonio J. De Castro, researchers at the UC3M.

Oficina Información Científica | alfa
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/975/description#description

More articles from Interdisciplinary Research:

nachricht A new method for the 3-D printing of living tissues
16.08.2017 | University of Oxford

nachricht Bergamotene - alluring and lethal for Manduca sexta
21.04.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

All articles from Interdisciplinary Research >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology

22.09.2017 | Medical Engineering

Calculating quietness

22.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>