In this study the computational Biomechanics group lead by Fulvia Taddei at the Medical Technology Lab of the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute in Bologna, Italy, reports about an extensive validation study of the so-called subject-specific finite element analysis. This method makes possible the creation of computer models capable of predicting the mechanical stresses in any region of the skeleton of a given patient, starting only from a Computed Tomography exam of that subject.
In the study eight cadaver bones instrumented with dozen of sensors and subjected to multiple physiological loading conditions were used by the Experimental Biomechanics group lead by Luca Cristofolini to determine the mechanical stresses in the region of the proximal femur, consider one of the most difficult to model accurately.
Then the eight cadaver bones were examined with a standard clinical CT procedure; the eight computer models generated from these data were used to predict the mechanical stresses in the same loading conditions, and the predictions were then compared to the measured values. The study confirmed that the method developed at the Medical Technology Lab has accuracy better than 10%, which twice more accurate than any other previously published study.
This level of accuracy makes possible the introduction of these subject-specific predictive models in the clinical practice, in applications such as the prediction of the risk of fracture in osteoporotic patients, the preoperative planning of complex skeletal reconstructions in paediatric oncology or in traumatology, or the retrospective investigation of joint arthoplasties that failed in relation to biomechanical factors.
Annalisa Bandieri | alfa
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
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Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
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The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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