Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

MIT 'optics on a chip' may revolutionize telecom, computing

06.02.2007
Research integrates photonic circuitry on a silicon chip

In work that could lead to completely new devices, systems and applications in computing and telecommunications, MIT researchers are bringing the long-sought goal of "optics on a chip" one step closer to market.

In the January 2007 inaugural issue of the journal Nature Photonics, the team reports a novel way to integrate photonic circuitry on a silicon chip. Adding the power and speed of light waves to traditional electronics could achieve system performance inconceivable by electronic means alone.

The MIT invention will enable such integrated devices to be mass-manufactured for the first time. And, depending on the growth of the telecom industry, the new devices could be in demand within five years, said co-author Erich P. Ippen, the Elihu Thomson Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics.

The new technology will also enable supercomputers on a chip with unique high-speed capabilities for signal processing, spectroscopy and remote testing, among other fields.

"This breakthrough allows inter- and intra-chip communications networks that solve the wiring problems of today's computer chips and computer architectures," said Franz X. Kaertner, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science.

In addition to Ippen and Kaertner, other members of the MIT team are Tymon Barwicz (PhD 2005), Michael Watts (PhD 2005), graduate students Milos Popovic and Peter Rakich, and Henry I. Smith, professor of electrical engineering and co-director of MIT's Nanostructures Laboratory.

Molding light waves

Microphotonics technology aims to "mold" the flow of light. By using two different materials that refract light differently, such as silicon and its oxides, photons can be trapped within a miniscule hall of mirrors, giving them unique properties.

The stumbling block has been that microphotonics devices are sensitive to the polarization of light.

Light waves moving through optical fibers can be arbitrarily vertically or horizontally polarized, and microphotonic circuits don't work well with that kind of random input. This has meant that devices used in photonic subsystems and optical communication networks, for instance, couldn't connect to the outside world without often having to be assembled piecemeal and painstakingly by hand.

Like polarizing sunglasses, which use vertical polarizers to block the horizontally oriented light reflected from flat surfaces such as roads or water, the MIT method of integrating optics on a chip involves separating the two orientations of polarized light waves.

Splitting the difference

The MIT researchers' innovative solution involves splitting the light emanating from an optic fiber into two arms-one with horizontally polarized beams and one with vertical beams-in an integrated, on-chip fashion.

Setting these two at right angles to one another, the researchers rotated the polarization of one of the arms, also in an integrated way. The beams from the two arms, now oriented the same way, then pass through identical sets of polarization-sensitive photonic structures and out the other side of the chip, where the two split beams are rejoined.

"These results represent a breakthrough in permitting the processing and switching of arbitrarily polarized input light signals in tightly confined and densely integrated photonic circuitry," said Ippen. The innovation means that optical components can be integrated onto a single silicon chip and mass-produced, cutting costs and boosting performance and complexity.

The advantage in integrating optics with silicon technology is that silicon fabrication technology "is already highly developed and promises precise and reproducible processing of densely integrated circuits," Kaertner said. "The prospect of integrating the photonic circuitry directly on silicon electronic chips is ultimately also an important driver."

In addition to offering a breakthrough in polarization, the MIT chip also contains first-of-their-kind components in materials meeting telecommunications specifications.

"Our results illustrate the importance of academic research in nanofabrication and academia's role in breaking new pathways for the industry to follow," Smith said. "Creating these devices was only possible due to the unique nanofabrication facilities at MIT, enabling fabrication with extraordinary precision."

This work was supported by Pirelli Labs in Milan, Italy, and made use of MIT's Nanostructures Laboratory and MIT's Scanning Electron Beam Lithography Facility, both within the Research Laboratory of Electronics.

Elizabeth A. Thomson | MIT News Office
Further information:
http://www.mit.edu

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Supercomputing the emergence of material behavior
18.05.2018 | University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

nachricht Keeping a Close Eye on Ice Loss
18.05.2018 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

Im Focus: Computer-Designed Customized Regenerative Heart Valves

Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.

Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...

Im Focus: Light-induced superconductivity under high pressure

A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.

Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supersonic waves may help electronics beat the heat

18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Keeping a Close Eye on Ice Loss

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

CrowdWater: An App for Flood Research

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>