Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Algorithm makes tongue tree

22.01.2002


Compression helps a computer tell Dante from Machiavelli


New computer programme could settle literary debates.

To date, unlike us, computers have struggled to differentiate a page of Jane Austen from one by Jackie Collins. Now researchers in Italy have developed a program that can spot enough subtle differences between two authors’ works to attribute authorship1.

The program can tell a text by Machiavelli from one by Pirandello, Dante or a host of other great Italian writers. It constructed a language tree of the degree of affinity between 50 different tongues. The tree identifies all the main linguistic groups, such as Romance, Celtic, Slavic and so forth and highlights Maltese (an Afro-Asiatic language) and Basque as anomalies.



As well as settling a few literary arguments, the technique might be useful for comparing other information-rich sequences of data. These might include genetic sequences, medical-monitoring measurements and stock-market fluctuations.

Style over substance

Identifying the language of a particular text is generally not hard in itself: one need simply look for the greatest overlap between the words used and those in a reference list for each language. Classifying linguistic styles is altogether more tricky.

One obvious approach is to compare the range and frequency of words in the sample text against reference texts from various candidate authors. That might work for markedly different styles: it would quickly distinguish Shakespeare from Tom Clancy.

But literary scholars often argue furiously about attributions for old texts. The task can become immensely difficult even for those with a great deal of knowledge about the candidate authors’ writing styles.

Clash of symbols

So Dario Benedetto and colleagues at the Universita ’La Sapienza’ in Rome try a different approach. They start from the premise that written language is in the end no more than a string of symbols. It might look rather random, but it is not.

Some groups of characters recur commonly (such as ’the’ in English), and particular authors favour certain constructions and turns of phrase. These can be measured, rather than being reliant on subjective impressions or anecdotal comparisons.

The team begin from the classic insight of telecommunications engineer Claude Shannon in the 1940s that the information content of a message is related to its entropy. Roughly speaking, entropy is a measure of how much redundancy a message contains. It can be defined as the smallest program that will produce the original message as the output.

For a random string of characters, this program would simply specify every character - it would be the same size as the original message. For a string of just A’s, the program could be very concise: ’repeat A’. Most real messages lie somewhere in-between: they can usually be compressed a little without losing significant information. This is the basis of data-compression computer algorithms, used to make ’zip’ files, for instance.

Benedetto and his colleagues borrow the principles of data-compression algorithms to calculate a kind of relative entropy for two different character strings: a measure of how much they differ. This distance between two texts is smaller for two works by the same author than for two works by different authors.

References

  1. Benedetto, D., Caglioti, E. & Loreto, V. Language trees and zipping. Physical Review Letters, 88, 048702, (2002).


PHILIP BALL | © Nature News Service

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Underwater acoustic localization of marine mammals and vehicles
23.11.2017 | IMDEA Networks Institute

nachricht NASA CubeSat to test miniaturized weather satellite technology
10.11.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Underwater acoustic localization of marine mammals and vehicles

23.11.2017 | Information Technology

Enhancing the quantum sensing capabilities of diamond

23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon

23.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>