The need for security in electronic communications is crucial in todays world. The foundation for providing this security rests on mathematics. In particular, a certain kind of mathematical function called a "hash function" is central in the design of cryptographic systems that protect electronic communications. But recently the most secure hash function in use today was shown to be vulnerable to attack. An article in the upcoming issue of the Notices of the AMS describes these attacks and sends out a call for a new mathematical theory to undergird future communications security systems.
A hash function is an easy-to-compute compression function that takes as input any string of computer bits and distills that string down to a fixed-length output string: Whether the input is an 8-character password or a 100-page document, the hash function outputs a string of a fixed length. An important feature of hash functions is that they must be hard---or at least computationally too expensive---to invert. So, for example, it should be hard, given the hash of a password, to recover the password itself.
One researcher calls hash functions the "duct tape" of cryptography because they are used everywhere for many different purposes: to authenticate messages, to ascertain software integrity, to create one-time passwords, and to support Internet communication protocols. The very ubiquity of hash functions makes any vulnerability found in them a widespread concern.
Dr. Susan Landau | EurekAlert!
Fingerprints of quantum entanglement
16.02.2018 | University of Vienna
Simple in the Cloud: The digitalization of brownfield systems made easy
07.02.2018 | Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz GmbH, DFKI
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters
Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...
Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).
Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
16.02.2018 | Information Technology
16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy