The Semantic Web lies at the heart of Tim Berners-Lee’s vision for the future of the Web, enabling a wide range of intelligent services. Thanks to the development of the infrastructure needed for the large-scale deployment of ontologies as the bedrock of the Semantic Web, that vision is much closer to reality.
Ontologies provide the lifeblood of the Semantic Web by defining shared and common domain theories, and allowing people and machines to communicate more effectively. They also play a crucial role in enabling content-based access, interoperability and communication across the Web.
In the three years since the WonderWeb IST project began, it has managed to meet – and in some cases exceed – all of its key objectives. These achievements include standardisation of the OWL ontology language, the development of the KAON ontology-engineering environment, the development of the WonderWeb ontology library and the development of an ontology modularisation framework.
“The important thing that OWL provides is a common standard for such a language with a precise formal specification,” adds Ian Horrocks. “OWL is to knowledge management systems what SQL is to database management systems. This allows tool and ontology interoperability, facilitates the rapid development of tools and infrastructure and gives users the confidence to devote major efforts to using OWL,” he said.
An engineering toolkit
In terms of tools and services, an important result of the project has been the development of KAON, an ontology-engineering environment, which has been downloaded by over 14,000 users, and the integration of a wide range of software components such as editors and reasoners. A completely new inference engine has also been developed in order to improve reasoning services for OWL applications. The result is a powerful and extensible ontology development environment.
Complementing KAON and tools is the WonderWeb ontology library, a rich collection of foundational ontologies and domain specific extensions. The library includes the DOLCE, OCRE and BFO foundational ontologies, as well as extensions covering areas such as Web services, plans, and descriptions and situations. An influential review of the current state-of-the-art in ontology design methodologies has also been produced.
Underpinning further research
While acknowledging the technical difficulties that are part-and-parcel of any such project, Ian Horrocks said that it was gratifying to see so much of the fundamental research underpinning WonderWeb finding its way into other initiatives.
“This was a basic research project so feeding results through to applications involves the usual technology transfer problems such as tool building, scalability and developing ‘industrial strength’ infrastructure from research prototypes. This is already happening, however, with ontology building tools such as Protege, which owes a lot to our pioneering work on the ontology editor OilEd, and commercial offerings such as those from Network Inference, which owes a lot to our work on reasoning infrastructure,” he said.
WonderWeb has also exercised considerable influence on current EC-funded FP6 projects, with the Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering, DOLCE, being used by aceMedia, Metokis, Semantic Mining and SmartWeb, among others. Many projects are also using the KAON environment and tools.
Although WonderWeb has now officially run its course, the technologies brought to life by the project are very much alive and kicking.
“OWL is already very widely accepted and used, even in commercial offerings, and is the de facto standard in many domains, such as e-Science for example, that are not directly related to the Semantic Web,” notes Ian Horrocks. “There are several extensions being discussed by W3C, and working groups have and are being established to take the work forward. For example there is a ‘best practices’ working group looking at application of OWL and RDF and a ‘data access’ working group looking at query languages and there is also going to be a W3C workshop on rules extensions to OWL in April with a view to starting up another working group,” he said.
As for the Semantic Web, Ian Horrocks is optimistic that the vision is moving slowly but surely towards reality. “The Semantic Web is still a research project, but the development of OWL and OWL-based infrastructure is seen as a huge success for Semantic Web research. This is now a major research community, and huge amounts of work are going into further developments,” he said.
Tara Morris | alfa
A novel hybrid UAV that may change the way people operate drones
28.03.2017 | Science China Press
Timing a space laser with a NASA-style stopwatch
28.03.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
29.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
29.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences