Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New computer-aided approach tailors drug dose to patient needs

16.03.2004


A computer-aided approach -- based on software-that-learns -- promises to provide a new tool that helps doctors tailor the dosage of abciximab, a medicine frequently used before angioplasty to lessen the chance of heart attack.



Dr. Mirna Urquidi-Macdonald, professor of engineering science and mechanics, says, "While we tried our approach first with abciximab, it may be applicable to other medicines that have a narrow therapeutical range between under dosing and overdosing."

The approach is described in the January issue of the journal, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. The authors are Urquidi-Macdonald, who worked on the project during a sabbatical at the National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center in Baltimore, Md.; Dr. Donald E. Mager, National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center, Baltimore, Md.; Dr. Mary A. Mascelli, Centocor Inc., Malvern, Pa.; Bart Frederick, Centocor, Inc., Malvern; Dr. Jane Freedman, Division of Cardiology, Boston University School of Medicine; Dr. Desmond J. Fitzgerald, The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland; Dr. Neal S. Kleiman, Division of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; and Dr. Darrell R. Abernethy, National Institute on Aging, Gerontology Research Center,.


The new approach is based on neural network software that can "learn" when given a large body of data on which to train. Using a fast back-propagation neural network and data from 8 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty and 30 healthy patients, the researchers trained the software to predict the best dose strategy for an individual patient based on 17 characteristics. These include, race, sex, age, weight, stable angina, previous myocardial infarction, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, prior coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, statins, beta blocker, nitrates, calcium antagonists and diuretics.

Abciximab lessens the risk of heart attack by reducing the chance that a harmful blood clot will form by preventing blood cells, called platelets, from clumping together. Urquidi-Macdonald trained the software to predict the individual patient doses versus the time necessary to achieve 20 percent of the baseline platelet aggregation over 15 days.

"The key problem to solve was how to represent the data so that it included all of the patient’s characteristics along with the concentrations of drug and platelet aggregation which change over time and to use a fast back propagation neural network designed for this application," Urquidi-Macdonald says.

The researchers solved the problem and also identified key patient characteristics that contribute significantly to establishing the abciximab dose-effect relationship. These characteristics include, among others, whether the patient smokes or not, ethnicity and the patient’s weight.

By comparing the dosages predicted by the new system with dose-effect data from 39 patients who had undergone standard abciximab therapy, the researchers found that the new software offered potential for dose prescription improvement. For example, the software predictions suggest that the targeted degree of platelet inhibition may be achieved in some patients with lower doses, which could translate into a reduced risk for adverse side effects.

The Penn State researcher says, "The software also predicts that administering a smaller initial dose, followed by one or two infusions to keep the platelet concentration at 20 percent of baseline, achieves the same effect as giving the patient a larger initial dose."

In addition, the software predicted that two of the patients tested would not achieve the target response within the tested range of doses.

The researchers write, "The utility of this approach and whether it may provide an improvement in therapeutic outcomes clearly remain to be determined in a randomized, double-blind, prospective clinical trial."

Should the utility of the new approach be borne out in clinical trials, they predict that by using personal computers, laptops or personal digital assistants, clinicians could simply to enter the necessary input parameters to obtain a network-predicted regimen to aid in their decisions.


The project was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging. Clinical studies that provided the data for this analysis were supported by Centocor, Inc.

Barbara Hale | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.psu.edu/

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Paint job transforms walls into sensors, interactive surfaces
24.04.2018 | Carnegie Mellon University

nachricht Researchers illuminate the path to a new era of microelectronics
23.04.2018 | Boston University College of Engineering

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.

Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...

Im Focus: Molecules Brilliantly Illuminated

Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.

Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...

Im Focus: Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite

University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.

Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.

Im Focus: Writing and deleting magnets with lasers

Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.

Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...

Im Focus: Gamma-ray flashes from plasma filaments

Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.

The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

IWOLIA: A conference bringing together German Industrie 4.0 and French Industrie du Futur

09.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Complete skin regeneration system of fish unraveled

24.04.2018 | Life Sciences

Scientists create innovative new 'green' concrete using graphene

24.04.2018 | Materials Sciences

BAM@Hannover Messe: innovative 3D printing method for space flight

24.04.2018 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>