Findings could have implications for speech recognition, machine learning, information retrieval
Scientists at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have developed new insight into a formula that helped British cryptanalysts crack the German Enigma code in World War II. Writing in the Oct. 17 edition of the journal Science, UCSD Jacobs School of Engineering professor Alon Orlitsky and graduate students Narayana P. Santhanam and Junan Zhang shed light on a lingering mathematical mystery and propose a new solution that could help improve automatic speech recognition, natural language processing, and other machine learning software.
In the article, Orlitsky and his colleagues unlock some of the secrets of the "Good-Turing estimator," a formula for estimating the probability of elements based on observed data. The formula is named after famed mathematicians I.J. Good and Alan Turing who, during WWII, were among a group of cryptanalysts charged with breaking the Enigma cipher -- the code used to encrypt German military communications. Working at Bletchley Park outside of London, their work has been credited by some with shortening the war by several years. (It also led to the development of the first modern computer, and was documented in a number of books and movies.)
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Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. In particular, the new method allows the imaging of quantum dots in a semiconductor chip. Together with colleagues from the University of Bochum, scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute reported the findings in the journal Nature Photonics.
Microscopes allow us to see structures that are otherwise invisible to the human eye. However, conventional optical microscopes cannot be used to image...
On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.
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What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...
For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.
Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...
At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.
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