Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researcher Invents New Graphing Method

13.08.2003


“Diamond Graph” Corrects Long-Standing Errors of 3-D Bar Graphs


Example of New Diamond Graph



Looks can be deceiving. That’s one of the problems with today’s three-dimensional bar graph. While these graphs may look correct, researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health believe they are in fact inaccurate and misleading.

Currently, the 3-D bar graph is used in countless computer programs, scientific journals, and newspapers to display financial, medical, and other information in which two variables lead to an outcome. Alvaro Muñoz, PhD, a professor of epidemiology at the School of Public Health, has developed the new Diamond Graph, which corrects these errors and represents all the variables equally in a form that is easy to read. He believes the new graphing method could replace the traditional 3-D bar graph in software commonly used in business and science. Dr. Muñoz and his colleagues described the Diamond Graph method in an article published in the August 2003 edition of the peer-reviewed journal, The American Statistician.


So what is wrong with the old method? According to Dr. Muñoz, the 3-D bar graph has three main flaws. First, the variables, which equally contribute to an outcome, are not equally represented in the diagram. This gives the impression that one variable is more important than another. Second, it is sometimes difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish the true value of the bars, because of the problems of representing a three-dimensional image on a two-dimensional page. Because of perspective, some bars appear to be of greater or lesser value when they are actually of equal value. The third drawback of the 3-D graph is that it cannot be used to present overlapping data. In some cases, parallel bars with higher values may obscure those with lower values making the graph useless.

“The inaccuracies of the traditional 3-D bar graph may seem trivial, but they can be significant when you’re dealing with important information like predicting your risk for a heart attack or plotting the performance of your company investments,” said Dr. Muñoz.

The new Diamond Graph method corrects the inaccuracies and limitations of the 3-D bar graph by representing all variables equally on a 2-D graph. The Diamond Graph is essentially the view of the bar graph from above rather than from the side. Instead of using rising parallel bars, the Diamond Graph uses expanding polygons within a diamond-shaped grid to represent values. The researcher experimented with other shapes, but found that the six-sided polygon was the only shape to represent the outcomes equally within the grid as it expanded.

Over the years, other researchers have attempted to develop a better graphing method, but the Diamond graph is the first to equally represent the relationships between a continuous outcome and each of the two categorical predictors in a single plot.

“We call our new method of display the Diamond Graph. It has the shape, and hopefully, the value of a diamond. Perhaps more importantly, it is reminiscent of the baseball diamond that The American Statisticians equiponderantly love. Who would have thought we would still be inventing new methods of graphing in the twenty-first century?”

Johns Hopkins University is seeking partners who would like to incorporate the Damond Graph method into their commercial software. JHU has a patent pending. Inquiries may be directed to Deborah Alper at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health at dalper@jhsph.edu or 443-287-0402.

“A Diamond-Shaped Equiponderant Graphical Display of the Effects of Two Categorical Predictors on Continuous Outcomes” was written by Xiuhong Li, Jennifer M. Buechner, Patrick M. Tarwater and Alvaro Muñoz.

The research was sponsored by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Public Affairs Media Contacts for the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: Tim Parsons or Kenna Brigham at 410-955-6878 or paffairs@jhsph.edu .

Tim Parsons | Johns Hopkins University
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu/Press_Room/Press_Releases/Munoz_diamond_graph.html

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Deep Learning predicts hematopoietic stem cell development
21.02.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Sensors embedded in sports equipment could provide real-time analytics to your smartphone
16.02.2017 | University of Illinois College of Engineering

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>