# Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Search our Site:

## Researcher Invents New Graphing Method

13.08.2003

“Diamond Graph” Corrects Long-Standing Errors of 3-D Bar Graphs

Example of New Diamond Graph

Looks can be deceiving. That’s one of the problems with today’s three-dimensional bar graph. While these graphs may look correct, researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health believe they are in fact inaccurate and misleading.

Currently, the 3-D bar graph is used in countless computer programs, scientific journals, and newspapers to display financial, medical, and other information in which two variables lead to an outcome. Alvaro Muñoz, PhD, a professor of epidemiology at the School of Public Health, has developed the new Diamond Graph, which corrects these errors and represents all the variables equally in a form that is easy to read. He believes the new graphing method could replace the traditional 3-D bar graph in software commonly used in business and science. Dr. Muñoz and his colleagues described the Diamond Graph method in an article published in the August 2003 edition of the peer-reviewed journal, The American Statistician.

So what is wrong with the old method? According to Dr. Muñoz, the 3-D bar graph has three main flaws. First, the variables, which equally contribute to an outcome, are not equally represented in the diagram. This gives the impression that one variable is more important than another. Second, it is sometimes difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish the true value of the bars, because of the problems of representing a three-dimensional image on a two-dimensional page. Because of perspective, some bars appear to be of greater or lesser value when they are actually of equal value. The third drawback of the 3-D graph is that it cannot be used to present overlapping data. In some cases, parallel bars with higher values may obscure those with lower values making the graph useless.

“The inaccuracies of the traditional 3-D bar graph may seem trivial, but they can be significant when you’re dealing with important information like predicting your risk for a heart attack or plotting the performance of your company investments,” said Dr. Muñoz.

The new Diamond Graph method corrects the inaccuracies and limitations of the 3-D bar graph by representing all variables equally on a 2-D graph. The Diamond Graph is essentially the view of the bar graph from above rather than from the side. Instead of using rising parallel bars, the Diamond Graph uses expanding polygons within a diamond-shaped grid to represent values. The researcher experimented with other shapes, but found that the six-sided polygon was the only shape to represent the outcomes equally within the grid as it expanded.

Over the years, other researchers have attempted to develop a better graphing method, but the Diamond graph is the first to equally represent the relationships between a continuous outcome and each of the two categorical predictors in a single plot.

“We call our new method of display the Diamond Graph. It has the shape, and hopefully, the value of a diamond. Perhaps more importantly, it is reminiscent of the baseball diamond that The American Statisticians equiponderantly love. Who would have thought we would still be inventing new methods of graphing in the twenty-first century?”

Johns Hopkins University is seeking partners who would like to incorporate the Damond Graph method into their commercial software. JHU has a patent pending. Inquiries may be directed to Deborah Alper at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health at dalper@jhsph.edu or 443-287-0402.

“A Diamond-Shaped Equiponderant Graphical Display of the Effects of Two Categorical Predictors on Continuous Outcomes” was written by Xiuhong Li, Jennifer M. Buechner, Patrick M. Tarwater and Alvaro Muñoz.

The research was sponsored by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Public Affairs Media Contacts for the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: Tim Parsons or Kenna Brigham at 410-955-6878 or paffairs@jhsph.edu .

Tim Parsons | Johns Hopkins University
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu/Press_Room/Press_Releases/Munoz_diamond_graph.html

### More articles from Information Technology:

Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches
25.05.2018 | Universität Ulm

Supercomputing the emergence of material behavior
18.05.2018 | University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

### Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

### Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

### Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

### Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

### Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige