Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers Develop Techniques for Computing Google-Style Web Rankingsup to Five Times Faster

14.05.2003


Speed-up may make "topic-sensitive" page rankings feasible

Computer science researchers at Stanford University have developed several new techniques that together may make it possible to calculate Web page rankings as used in the Google search engine up to five times faster. The speed-ups to Google’s method may make it realistic to calculate page rankings personalized for an individual’s interests or customized to a particular topic.

The Stanford team includes graduate students Sepandar Kamvar and Taher Haveliwala, noted numerical analyst Gene Golub and computer science professor Christopher Manning. They will present their first paper at the Twelfth Annual World Wide Web Conference (WWW2003) in Budapest, Hungary, May 20-24, 2003. The work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education in all fields of science and engineering.

Computing PageRank, the ranking algorithm behind the Google search engine, for a billion Web pages can take several days. Google currently ranks and searches 3 billion Web pages. Each personalized or topic-sensitive ranking would require a separate multi-day computation, but the payoff would be less time spent wading through irrelevant search results. For example, searching a sports-specific Google site for "Giants" would give more importance to pages about the New York or San Francisco Giants and less importance to pages about Jack and the Beanstalk.

"This work is a wonderful example of how NSF support for basic computer science research, including applied mathematics and algorithm research, has impacts in daily life," said NSF program officer Maria Zemankova. In the mid-1990s, an NSF digital library project and an NSF graduate fellowship also supported Stanford graduate students Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they developed what would become the Google search engine.

To speed up PageRank, the Stanford team developed a trio of techniques in numerical linear algebra. First, in the WWW2003 paper, they describe so-called "extrapolation" methods, which make some assumptions about the Web’s link structure that aren’t true, but permit a quick and easy computation of PageRank. Because the assumptions aren’t true, the PageRank isn’t exactly correct, but it’s close and can be refined using the original PageRank algorithm. The Stanford researchers have shown that their extrapolation techniques can speed up PageRank by 50 percent in realistic conditions and by up to 300 percent under less realistic conditions.

A second paper describes an enhancement, called "BlockRank," which relies on a feature of the Web’s link structure-a feature that the Stanford team is among the first to investigate and exploit. Namely, they show that approximately 80 percent of the pages on any given Web site point to other pages on the same site. As a result, they can compute many single-site PageRanks, glue them together in an appropriate manner and use that as a starting point for the original PageRank algorithm. With this technique, they can realistically speed up the PageRank computation by 300 percent.

Finally, the team notes in a third paper that the rankings for some pages are calculated early in the PageRank process, while the rankings of many highly rated pages take much longer to compute. In a method called "Adaptive PageRank," they eliminate redundant computations associated with those pages whose PageRanks finish early. This speeds up the PageRank computation by up to 50 percent.

"Further speed-ups are possible when we use all these methods," Kamvar said. "Our preliminary experiments show that combining the methods will make the computation of PageRank up to a factor of five faster. However, there are still several issues to be solved. We’re closer to a topic-based PageRank than to a personalized ranking."

The complexities of a personalized ranking would require even greater speed-ups to the PageRank calculations. In addition, while a faster algorithm shortens computation time, the issue of storage remains. Because the results from a single PageRank computation on a few billion Web pages require several gigabytes of storage, saving a personalized PageRank for many individuals would rapidly consume vast amounts of storage. Saving a limited number of topic-specific PageRank calculations would be more practical.

The reason for the expensive computation and storage requirements lies in how PageRank generates the rankings that have led to Google’s popularity. Unlike page-ranking methods that rate each page separately, PageRank bases each page’s "importance" on the number and importance of pages that link to the page.

Therefore, PageRank must consider all pages at the same time and can’t easily omit pages that aren’t likely to be relevant to a topic. It also means that the faster method will not affect how quickly Google presents results to users’ searches, because the rankings are computed in advance and not at the time a search is requested.

The Stanford team’s conference paper and technical reports on enhancing the PageRank algorithm, as well as the original paper describing the PageRank method, are available on the Stanford Database Group’s Publication Server (http://dbpubs.stanford.edu/).

David Hart | National Science Foundation
Further information:
http://www.stanford.edu/~sdkamvar/research.html
http://www.www2003.org/
http://dbpubs.stanford.edu

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht UT professor develops algorithm to improve online mapping of disaster areas
29.11.2016 | University of Tennessee at Knoxville

nachricht New standard helps optical trackers follow moving objects precisely
23.11.2016 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

Im Focus: Fraunhofer ISE Develops Highly Compact, High Frequency DC/DC Converter for Aviation

The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.

Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

UTSA study describes new minimally invasive device to treat cancer and other illnesses

02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Plasma-zapping process could yield trans fat-free soybean oil product

02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

What do Netflix, Google and planetary systems have in common?

02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>