In its meeting of Thursday 5th July 2012 the International Football Association Board (IFAB), the body which determines the laws of the game, approved both goal-line technologies GoalRef and Hawk-Eye.This approval is subject to a final installation test at each stadium before the systems can be used in “real” football matches, in accordance with the FIFA Quality Programme for GLT.
FIFA, football’s world governing body, and a member of the IFAB has decided to use both goal-line technology systems from GoalRef and Hawk-Eye at the FIFA Club World Cupin Japan in December this year. The GoalRef system was developed by researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS. "The technology works in a similar way to that of the theft protection of a department store," explained René Dünkler, spokesman of the GoalRef project. Ten antennae behind the goalpost and crossbar create and monitor a weak magnetic field. As soon as the ball nears the goal-line the field is influenced by thin spools in the football. A processor is then able to determine, by means of the antenna signal, whether the ball fully crossed the goal-line or not.
"GoalRef is a bit like an invisible curtain which hangs behind the crossbar and the goal-line. As soon as the ball fully passes through this "curtain", it is recognised as a goal," says Ingmar Bretz, project head of GoalRef. The system then automatically sends this information in real time via encoded radio signals to the referees whose special wrist watches display the result visually and by means of vibration.
The IFAB investigated the possible use of technical aids after several incorrect rulings including the disallowed goal for England in the game against Germany in the 2010 World Cup. Eight goal-line technology systems were initially tested for the International Football Association Board last November and December. The evaluation criteria were compiled by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA). Only two systems managed to qualify for the next test phase with this set of criteria – including GoalRef from the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS in Erlangen.
In the second test phase the independent testers of the EMPA put both systems through rigorous tests in the laboratory as well as in field tests, training and live professional matches. Several thousand goals were evaluated for each system to test the reliability and also whether the referees receive prompt notification. These extensive tests were successfully passed by the GoalRef system.
"In the test and test matches we used the ball of our development partner of many years, the Danish manufacturer Select," explained René Dünkler. Peter Knap, CEO of Select and Derbystar: "The challenge was to develop a ball which could withstand even a shot from Ronaldo and, at the same time, communicate with the intelligent goal." The iball is also available under the name Derbystar. In the future balls from other manufacturers will also be able to use the GoalRef technology.
René Dünkler | Fraunhofer-Institute
Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions
21.10.2016 | Stanford University
New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality
19.10.2016 | University of Waterloo
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences