Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Water samples teeming with information: Emerging techniques for environmental monitoring

30.06.2014

Setting effective conservation policies requires near real-time knowledge of environmental conditions. Scientists with Stanford's Center for Ocean Solutions propose using genetic techniques as a low-cost, quick way to collect such data.

Environmental policy must respond to ever-changing conditions on the ground and in the water, but doing so requires a constant flow of information about the living world.


Scientists are using material shed into the environment by animals to survey biological communities.

(Photo: Robert Kennedy)

In a paper published in Science this week, scientists from Stanford's Center for Ocean Solutions, the University of Washington and the University of Copenhagen propose employing emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling techniques that could make assessing the biodiversity of marine ecosystems – from single-cell critters to great white sharks – as easy as taking a water sample.

Controlling invasive species and saving endangered ones are among the many applications of a new set of monitoring tools that use DNA recovered from the environment.

Although traditional sampling methods – including dive surveys and deploying sampling gear in the water – have been widely used in environmental monitoring, they are expensive, invasive and often focus only on a single species. Genetic monitoring via a form of DNA, known as eDNA, that is shed into the environment by animals could overcome some of these issues.

eDNA is like a fingerprint left at a crime scene. This material may come from metabolic waste, damaged tissue or sloughed off skin cells. Once it is collected, scientists can sequence the DNA to create a fast, high-resolution, non-invasive survey of whole biological communities.

"The eDNA work is potentially a game-changer for environmental monitoring," said Larry Crowder, a professor of biology at Stanford's Hopkins Marine Station, senior fellow at the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, science director at the Center for Ocean Solutions and a co-author of the study. "A number of laws require monitoring, but actually keeping tabs on large, mobile, cryptic animals is challenging and expensive."

Using DNA to inform policy

The cost of DNA sequencing is decreasing rapidly, a trend that has fueled eDNA studies in recent years.

"We wanted to know how to put these amazing new genetic tools to use," said lead author Ryan Kelly, an assistant professor at the University of Washington and a visiting fellow at the Center for Ocean Solutions. "Harnessing eDNA is a perfect example of how cutting-edge science can plug into many of the environmental laws we have on the books."

Nearly every environmental law imposes environmental monitoring obligations on government or the private sector, said Meg Caldwell, a senior lecturer at the Stanford Woods Institute and Stanford Law School, and executive director of the Center for Ocean Solutions, as well as a contributing author of the study. "Pushing the science of genomics to help society perform monitoring more cheaply and effectively is one of our core goals," she said.

The authors provide several examples of scientific-legal interactions, among them the use of eDNA to inform the enforcement of laws such as the Endangered Species Act and Clean Water Act with detailed, low-cost data.

So far, eDNA has been used to determine the presence or absence of certain target species. This technique is useful for detecting invasive species or changes in the distribution of endangered species. However, scientists are still evaluating how eDNA concentrations relate to specific numbers of organisms in the wild.

A challenging aspect of the approach is determining exactly where the eDNA was generated, especially in dynamic marine systems. eDNA is thought to persist in water for only a few days.

With these limitations, eDNA alone is not yet enough for policy applications, but it is already being used to supplement existing monitoring. This combination approach has recently been used in California to detect human- and animal-based pathogens in waters off state beaches.

"There is much work left to do to develop and validate this approach, but the potential is amazing," Crowder said. "We will continue to work with other scientists at the Center for Ocean Solutions and worldwide to advance and test this approach."

The David and Lucile Packard Foundation provided initial funding for the original concept of the eDNA tool, as part of its core support to the Center for Ocean Solutions, as well as additional funding to begin testing the tool in the field. A recent Environmental Venture Project grant from the Stanford Woods Institute will help researchers refine the eDNA tool.

Julia Turan is an intern at the Stanford News Service.

For more Stanford experts on environmental research and other topics, visit Stanford Experts.

Contact

Larry Crowder, Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions and Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment: (831) 402-6938, larry.crowder@stanford.edu

Jesse Port, Stanford Center for Ocean Solutions: (206) 962-1211, jport@stanford.edu

Terry Nagel, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment: (650) 498-0607, tnagel@stanford.edu

Bjorn Carey, Stanford News Service: (650) 725-1944, bccarey@stanford.edu

Terry Nagel | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://news.stanford.edu/pr/2014/pr-marine-edna-monitoring-062714.html

Further reports about: DNA Environment Environmental Ocean Water animals environment

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Savannahs help to slow climate change
22.05.2015 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biogeochemie

nachricht Surviving Harsh Environments Becomes a Death-Trap for Specialist Corals
21.05.2015 | University of Southampton

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Basel Physicists Develop Efficient Method of Signal Transmission from Nanocomponents

Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner. The scientists at the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications” together with their colleagues from ETH Zurich.

Electronic components are becoming smaller and smaller. Components measuring just a few nanometers – the size of around ten atoms – are already being produced...

Im Focus: IoT-based Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation System

Development and implementation of an advanced automobile parking navigation platform for parking services

To fulfill the requirements of the industry, PolyU researchers developed the Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation Platform, which includes smart devices,...

Im Focus: First electrical car ferry in the world in operation in Norway now

  • Siemens delivers electric propulsion system and charging stations with lithium-ion batteries charged from hydro power
  • Ferry only uses 150 kilowatt hours (kWh) per route and reduces cost of fuel by 60 percent
  • Milestone on the road to operating emission-free ferries

The world's first electrical car and passenger ferry powered by batteries has entered service in Norway. The ferry only uses 150 kWh per route, which...

Im Focus: Into the ice – RV Polarstern opens the arctic season by setting course for Spitsbergen

On Tuesday, 19 May 2015 the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its home port in Bremerhaven, setting a course for the Arctic. Led by Dr Ilka Peeken from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) a team of 53 researchers from 11 countries will investigate the effects of climate change in the Arctic, from the surface ice floes down to the seafloor.

RV Polarstern will enter the sea-ice zone north of Spitsbergen. Covering two shallow regions on their way to deeper waters, the scientists on board will focus...

Im Focus: Gel filled with nanosponges cleans up MRSA infections

Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a gel filled with toxin-absorbing nanosponges that could lead to an effective treatment for skin and wound infections caused by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), an antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This "nanosponge-hydrogel" minimized the growth of skin lesions on mice infected with MRSA - without the use of antibiotics. The researchers recently published their findings online in Advanced Materials.

To make the nanosponge-hydrogel, the team mixed nanosponges, which are nanoparticles that absorb dangerous toxins produced by MRSA, E. coli and other...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International symposium: trends in spatial analysis and modelling for a more sustainable land use

20.05.2015 | Event News

15th conference of the International Association of Colloid and Interface Scientists

18.05.2015 | Event News

EHFG 2015: Securing health in Europe. Balancing priorities, sharing responsibilities

12.05.2015 | Event News

 
Latest News

Mesoporous Particles for the Development of Drug Delivery System Safe to Human Bodies

22.05.2015 | Materials Sciences

Computing at the Speed of Light

22.05.2015 | Information Technology

Development of Gold Nanoparticles That Control Osteogenic Differentiation of Stem Cells

22.05.2015 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>