Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

In the Turf War Against Seaweed, Coral Reefs More Resilient than Expected

03.06.2009
There’s little doubt that coral reefs the world over face threats on many fronts: pollution, diseases, destructive fishing practices and warming oceans.

But reefs appear to be more resistant to one potential menace – seaweed – than previously thought, according to new research by a team of marine scientists from the United States and Australia.

Their study, published in the June issue of the journal Ecology, is the first global-scale analysis of thousands of surveys of individual reefs – in all, more than 3,500 examinations of about 1,800 reefs performed between 1996 and 2006.

“Until now, many scientists have concluded that the world’s coral reefs are being overrun by seaweed,” said John Bruno, Ph.D, associate professor of marine sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and lead author of the study. “Our findings show that’s not the case. Seaweed have taken over and are dominating some reefs, but far fewer than assumed.”

The problem with too much seaweed, researchers say, is that it can smother the baby corals, reducing the ability of reefs to recover from other disturbances such as hurricanes and disease outbreaks. Over recent decades, there have been several dramatic examples of such shifts, with one of the most widely known and striking cases occurring in the Caribbean in the 1980s. Following a series of events that disturbed the marine environment (including two major hurricanes, a disease outbreak and the loss of a seaweed-grazing urchin), coral cover on several reefs in Jamaica plummeted from about 70 percent to less than 10 percent, and macroalgae became the dominant life form.

So Bruno, along with colleagues Hugh Sweatman, Ph.D., from the Australian Institute of Marine Science and William F. Precht, a Florida-based marine ecologist, set out to determine how bad and how widespread the problem of seaweed-dominated reefs really is.

The team came up with a “phase-shift index” to determine the state of each reef. Pristine reefs where coral was still abundant had an index number of -2 to -3, while areas where macroalgae have overwhelmed reefs’ surfaces were given an index ranking of between 3 and 5.

They found that while there were moderate local increases in seaweed cover over the study period, only four percent of reefs worldwide were dominated by macroalgae – that is, more than 50 percent of a reef’s surface was covered in seaweed. Researchers also found overall “phase shift severity” decreased in the Caribbean, did not change in the Florida Keys and the Indo-Pacific, and increased slightly on the Great Barrier Reef due to moderate coral loss.

“Overall, our results indicate that there is no general recent trend (i.e., post-1995) toward marcoralgal dominance,” the researchers wrote.

“The results from this study question many of the prevailing paradigms that coral reef ecologists have developed over the past two decades,” Precht said. “These findings will change the way we view and manage these fragile yet resilient ecosystems.”

Said Sweatman: “I hope this study leads to clearer definition of what coral-algal phase shifts are and broadens our perspective on the serious loss of corals in many parts of the world. Australian reefs have been relatively lucky so far, but there is no reason for complacency.”

The study team noted that while their analysis suggests the threat posed by macroalgae has been exaggerated, individual case studies such as the degradation of Jamaican reefs have been invaluable warnings of the consequences of subjecting reefs to multiple natural and manmade disturbances.

The paper’s co-authors include UNC College of Arts and Sciences marine sciences department researchers Elizabeth R. Selig, Ph.D., and Virginia G. W. Schutte, who is now a doctoral student at the University of Georgia.

The study was funded by the National Science Foundation, the Australian Institute of Marine Science and UNC-Chapel Hill.

Ecology Journal Web site: http://www.esajournals.org/loi/ecol

Images: http://uncnews.unc.edu/images/stories/news/science/2009/phase%20shift%20fig.jpg

Patric Lane | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.unc.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Scientists team up on study to save endangered African penguins
16.11.2017 | Florida Atlantic University

nachricht Climate change: Urban trees are growing faster worldwide
13.11.2017 | Technische Universität München

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

Im Focus: Researchers Develop Data Bus for Quantum Computer

The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.

Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...

Im Focus: Wrinkles give heat a jolt in pillared graphene

Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities

Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA detects solar flare pulses at Sun and Earth

17.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures

17.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

The importance of biodiversity in forests could increase due to climate change

17.11.2017 | Studies and Analyses

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>