The researchers put their innovation—thin squares of plastic saturated with vapors of a common solvent—through the paces at four testing laboratories. The prototype test material, made at Virginia Tech, yielded measurement results more accurate than those previously achieved in more costly and time-consuming interlaboratory studies using less standardized materials.
The researchers suggest that their method might be used to produce a range of reference materials to validate measurements of VOCs emitted from building materials and products. VOCs are used in paints, adhesives, furniture and many other indoor products. Indoor levels of some VOCs average two to five times higher than outdoors, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.VOC emissions from building materials and products have been linked to occupant illness, reduced worker productivity, and increased requirements for ventilation/air cleaning, leading to increased energy consumption. As a result, low VOC emitting products are being used more widely in buildings to help achieve a healthy and sustainable indoor environment.
Past evaluations of test performance have been based on how much measurements reported by individual laboratories differ from the average value for the entire set of laboratories. "These kinds of inter-laboratory comparisons can take months to conduct," explains NIST environmental engineer Cynthia Howard-Reed, lead author of the new report, "and, unfortunately, the results are relative because there is no true reference value for determining just how accurate an emission measurement really is."
That's the gap the researchers are trying to fill. They aim to produce VOC reference materials—standardized test samples that produce known results when analyzed. These benchmark references are commonly used in industry to check the accuracy of important measurement instruments.
In the initial trial, they prepared two batches of their sample material—thin films of polymethyl pentane, a plastic used in gas-permeable packaging, saturated with toluene, a common VOC found in paint and other products. A mathematical model developed by the research team is used to accurately predict rates of emission from the sample over time. The preliminary multi-laboratory tests showed that the prototype reference material is uniform in composition and sufficiently stable and that rates of VOC emissions within and between production batches are consistent.
The researchers conclude that their prototype could reduce inter-laboratory variability in results to less than 10 percent—much better than current methods.
The pilot study also identified several opportunities for improvement, which will be incorporated before an international pilot is conducted later this year. With further progress, the project will be expanded by 2013 to include more types of VOC references that will be produced in larger batches for broader distribution.
* C. Howard-Reed , Z. Liu, J. Benning , S. Cox, D. Samarov, D. Leber, A.T. Hodgson, S. Mason, D. Won and J.C. Little. Diffusion-controlled reference material for volatile organic compound emissions testing: Pilot inter-laboratory study. Building and Environment 46 (2011) 1504-1511.
Mark Bello | EurekAlert!
Invasive Insects Cost the World Billions Per Year
04.10.2016 | University of Adelaide
Malaysia's unique freshwater mussels in danger
27.09.2016 | The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.
Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine
21.10.2016 | Information Technology
21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences